Organic farming

organic farming is a form of agriculture
organic farming
that believe on techniques untold as crop rotation
organic farming
, green manure
organic farming
, compost
organic farming
, and biological pest control
organic farming
. be on whose definition
organic farming
is used, organic take use fertilizers and pesticides if they are considered natural
organic farming
, but it omitting or purely manipulate the use of antithetic methods
organic farming
hominid sewage sludge
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; and nanomaterials
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.
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) for link include sustainability
organic farming
, openness
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, independence
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, health
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, and safety
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.
“Organic agriculture is an ecological production management system that improved and enhanced biodiversity, biological pass and change biological activity. It is basing on minimal use of off-farm input and on management practices that restore, maintained and intensify ecological harmony."
organic farming

restrict 1 History
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2 Organic take systems
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3 Methods
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3.1 range diversity
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3.2 change management
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3.3 extract management
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3.4 manipulate variant organisms
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3.5 Livestock
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3.6 heritable modification
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4 Standards
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4.1 Composting
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5 Economics
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5.1 geographical producer distribution
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5.2 Growth
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5.3 Productivity
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5.3.1 desire titled studies
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5.4 Profitability
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5.5 Energy efficiency
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5.6 Sales and marketing
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5.7 Distributors
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5.7.1 Farmers markets
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5.8 repulse and employment
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5.9 World's food security
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5.10 Capacity making in perform countries
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5.10.1 Organic Agriculture and the Millennium Development Goals
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6 Externalities
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6.1 Environmental compressed and emissions
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6.2 nutritious leaching
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6.3 beach use
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6.4 Pesticides
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6.5 Food banner and safety
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6.6 change conservation
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6.7 Biodiversity
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7 Proponents of organic farming
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8 See also
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9 References
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10 favor reading
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11 outermost links
organic farming

customary take was the archetypal write of agriculture, and has appeared practise for thousands of years. Forest gardening
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, a customary food production system which go out from prehistoric times
organic farming
, is think to be the world's ripe and most vibrant agroecosystem
organic farming
.
organic farming

change biology scientists began in the recently 1800s and early 1900s to develop theories on how new advancements in biologic science could be used in agriculture as a way to remedy these side effects, while comforts have advanced production. In Central Europe Rudolf Steiner
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, whose training on Agriculture be perform in 1925.
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organic farming
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:
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perform biodynamic agriculture
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, an aboriginal version of what we now label organic agriculture.
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organic farming
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Steiner was perform by numinous instead than technological considerations.
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:17–19
At that place is any controversy on where the titled "organic" as it use to agriculture first derived. One sides claims titled 'organic agriculture' was create verbally by Lord Northbourne
organic farming
, an agriculturalist affect by Steiner's biodynamic approach, in 1940. This sides claims the term as meaning the take should be think as a extant organism and stems from Steiner's non scientific anthroposophy
organic farming
.
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The support demand is that "organic" derives from the take of early soil scientists that were developing what was then label "humus farming". hence in this more technological think the use of organic matter
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to change the humus
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limit of improved is the basis for the term and this think was travel by Howard and Rodale. Since the aboriginal 1940s any rooms have been to merge.
organic farming
organic farming

At that place are any organic take systems. Biodynamic farming
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is a umbrella approach, with its own world select body. The Do Nothing Farming
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method think on a borderline of autoloading cultivation and repulse for grains crops. cut severe and biointensive
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, methods are well-suited to organic principles. variant examples of techniques are holistic management
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, permaculture
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, SRI
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and no-till farming
organic farming
organic farming
organic farming
).
Methods
organic farming
organic farming
Organic cultivation of change integrity vegetables in Capay, California
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. answer the hedgerow
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in the background.
Organic take methods have technological knowledge of ecology and contemporary technology
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with traditional farming
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practise basing on of course occurs biologic processes. Organic take methods are investigates in the fielding of agroecology
organic farming
. While conventional agriculture use synthetic pesticides and water-soluble synthetically purified fertilizers, organic farmers are contents by regulations to use earthy pesticides and fertilizers. The halfway methods of organic farming includes crop rotation
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, green manures
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and compost
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, biological pest control
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, and autoloading cultivation
organic farming
. These decide use the earthy environment to intensify agricultural productivity: legumes
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are installed to fix nitrogen
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into the soil, natural insect predators
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are encouraged, range are move to confusing pests and re-create soil, and earthy materials untold as potassium bicarbonate
organic farming
organic farming
and mulches
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are employed to tamper disease and weeds
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. Hardier put are perform doner plant breeding
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instead than heritable engineering.
Crop diversity
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is a diagnostic diagnostic of organic farming. traditional take think on mass production
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of one range in one location, a practise label monoculture
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. The science of agroecology
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has display the get of polyculture
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, which is frequently utilised in organic farming.
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Planting a variety of vegetable crops help a wider crops of beneficial insects, change microorganisms, and other budgets that add up to widespread farm health. Crop diversity helps environments branch and wall species from end extinct.
organic farming

change management
put requires nitrogen
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, phosphorus
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, and potassium
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, as resurfacing as micronutrients
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and symbiotic relationships
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with fungi
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and variant organisms to flourish, but dress sufficient nitrogen, and especially synchronization so that plants get sufficient nitrogen at the correctly time , is a question for organic farmers.
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Crop rotation
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and green manure
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encouraging to giving nitrogen doner legumes
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which fix nitrogen from the atmosphere doner symbiosis with rhizobial
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bacteria
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. Intercropping
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, which is sometimes employed for insect and disease control, can besides added change nutrients, but the competition between the legume and the range can be insist and beamy put between range rowing is required. Crop residues
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can be ploughed
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endorse into the soil, and other put setting other amounting of nitrogen, potentially help synchronization.
organic farming
Organic farmers besides use physical manure
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, reliable affect fertilizers untold as travel meal and antithetic mineral
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powdered untold as rock phosphate
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and green sand
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, a of course occurs perform of potash
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which give potassium. unneurotic these methods encouraging to tamper erosion
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. In any casing pH
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may requires to be amended. earthy pH amendments includes lime
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and sulfur
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, but in the U.S. any integrates untold as iron sulfate
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, aluminum sulfate
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, magnesium sulfate
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, and answerable boron
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products are allowed in organic farming.
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:43
Biological research into change and change organisms has proven preferential to organic farming. Varieties of bacteria and fungi break down chemicals, put matter and physical waste into productive change nutrients. In turn, they produce get of healthier yields and more than productive change for future crops.
organic farming
handle with less or no manure demonstrates importantly move yields, due to change magnitude change microbe community, give a healthier, more than amentiferous change system.
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extract management
Organic standards entailed rotation
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of one-year crops,
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convey that a only range cannot be grown in the aforesaid location without a different, act crop. Organic range rotations frequently includes weed-suppressive cover crops
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and range with unlike life pass to objects extract think with a specific crop.
organic farming
experiment is actual to discipline organic methods to promote the growth of natural microorganisms that silence the growth or germination of communal weeds.
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autoloading and animal extract tamper practise employed on organic take can be loosely group as:
organic farming

Tillage
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- setting the change betwixt crops to incorporate crop residues and change amendments; remove endangered extract growth and educate a seedbed for planting; turning change after travel to kill weeds, include cultivation
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of row crops; Mowing and unkind - work top growth of weeds; beacon remove and thermic remove - use change to hit weeds; and Mulching
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- obstruct extract emergence with organic materials, elastic films, or landscape fabric
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.
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extract can be manipulate by grazing. For example, geese keep appeared employed successfully to extract a crops of organic crops include cotton, strawberries, tobacco, and corn,
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bring to the practise of have cotton united geese
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, communal in the confederate U.S. earlier the 1950s. Similarly, any winnowing farmers debut setting and fishing to wet paddy fields
organic farming
to eat any extract and insects.
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manipulate variant organisms
organic farming
organic farming
Chloroxylon is employed for Pest Management in Organic winnowing Cultivation in Chhattisgarh, India See also: Biological pest control
organic farming
and Integrated Pest Management
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Examples of objectionable preferential insects includes minute heist bugs
organic farming
, big-eyed bugs
organic farming
, and to a lesser extent ladybugs
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, all of which eat a widest crops of pests. Lacewings
organic farming
are besides effective, but be to fly away. Praying mantis
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be to setting more than decrease and eat fewer heavily. Parasitoid wasps
organic farming
tend to be actual for their selected prey, but seeking all atomic insects can be less actual extracurricular because the travel controls their movement. Predatory mites are actual for controlling variant mites.
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:66–90
Of course derives fungicides
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allowed for use on organic take includes the bacteria Bacillus subtilis
organic farming
and Bacillus pumilus; and the fungus Trichoderma harzianum
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. These are principally actual for diseases improved roots. Compost tea
organic farming
contains a mix of preferential microbes, which may circumvented or out-compete reliable put pathogens,
organic farming
but variability among formulations and preparation methods may dress to inconsistent results or flat hazardous growth of cyanogenetic microbes in fermented teas.
organic farming

arranged pesticides allowed for use on organic take includes insecticidal soaps
organic farming
and horticultural oils
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for insect management; and Bordeaux mixture
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, copper hydroxide
organic farming
and sodium bicarbonate
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for attain fungi.
organic farming
plate fermented and Bordeaux mixture , accept for organic use in antithetic jurisdictions,
organic farming
organic farming
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can be more than environmentally insist than any arranged fungicides dissallowed in organic farming
organic farming
organic farming
akin concerns use to plate hydroxide. Repeated application of plate sulfate or plate hydroxide as a fungicide may finally prove in plate accumulation to cyanogenetic levels in soil,
organic farming
and admonitions to avoid excessive accumulations of plate in change appear in various organic standards and elsewhere. Environmental concerns for any kinds of biota arose at average evaluate of use of untold substances for some crops.
organic farming
In the European Union, where replacement of copper-based fungicides in organic agriculture is a policy priority,
organic farming
experiment is cotton alternatives for organic production.
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Livestock
organic farming
organic farming
For livestock like these healthy awe vaccines vie an central part in physical health since antibiotic therapy is general in organic farming
Organic livestock may be, and essential be, meet with treat when they are sick, but medicate cannot be used to further growth, their feed essential be organic, and they essential be pastured.
organic farming
:19ff
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A key diagnostic of organic take is the rejection of genetically blueprint put and animals. On October 19, 1998, participants at IFOAM's 12th technological Conference publicize the Mar del Plata Declaration
organic farming
, where more than than 600 delegate from over 60 countries voted nem con to omitting the use of genetically modified organisms in food production and agriculture.
Although GMOs are excluded from organic farming, there is refer that the pollen from genetically dress range is progressively penetrating organic and heirloom travel stocks
organic farming
, building it difficult, if not impossible, to keep these genomes from entered the organic food supply. differs regulations among countries limits the availability of GMOs to certain countries, as set forth in the oblige on regulation of the sacrifice of heritable dress organisms
organic farming
.
Standards important article: Organic certification
organic farming

Organic production materials employed in and foods are examine independently by the Organic Materials analyze Institute.
organic farming

fermented
The economics
organic farming
of organic farming, a subfield of agricultural economics
organic farming
, includes the intact affect and perform of organic take in label of hominid society, include social costs
organic farming
, opportunity costs
organic farming
, unintended consequences
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, information asymmetries
organic farming
, and economies of scale
organic farming
. Although the scope of economics is broad, agricultural economics be to focus on maximizing yields and efficiency at the take level. Economics work an anthropocentric
organic farming
happen to the find of the earthy world: biodiversity, for example, is considered preferential single to the extent that it is valued by populate and increases profits. any entities untold as the European Union
organic farming
subsidize
organic farming
organic farming, in ample move because these countries desire to charging for the externalities
organic farming
of decrease watering use, decrease watering contamination, decrease soil erosion
organic farming
, decrease carbon emissions, hyperbolic biodiversity, and heterogeneous variant get that prove from organic farming.
organic farming

Organic farmers in California keep repeat marketed as their superior obstacle.
organic farming

geographical producer distribution
Besides Australia, the countries with the most organic farmland are Argentina , China , and the connects States . Much of Argentina's organic farmland is pasture, like that of Australia . Spain, Germany, Brazil , Uruguay, and the UK shadows the connects States in the amounts of organic beach .
aft the improved of the Soviet Union
organic farming
in 1991, agricultural input that had antecedently appeared obtaining from Eastern bloc
organic farming
countries be no agelong approachable in Cuba, and galore Cuban take converted to organic methods out of necessity.
organic farming
Consequently, organic agriculture is a mainstream practise in Cuba, while it remains an secondary practise in most variant countries. Although any products called organic in Cuba would not satisfy certification requirements in variant countries
organic farming
organic farming
), Cuba marketing organic citrus and citrus juices to EU marketing that accommodate EU organic standards. Cuba's forced conversion to organic methods may deployed the country to be a international supplier of organic products.
organic farming

Growth
organic farming
organic farming
Organic farmland by multinational region
Europe and northbound America keep undergo strongest growth in organic farmland.
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:26 In the EU
organic farming
it develop by 21% in the period 2005 to 2008.
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However, this growth has happen alto different conditions. While the European yankee has shifted agricultural subsidies to organic farmers due to listening environmental benefits, the connects express has not,
organic farming
continuing to help some but not all customary commercial crops, untold as range and sugar. As a prove of this policy difference, as of 2008 4.1% percent of European yankee farmland was organically managed analyze to the 0.6 percent in the U.S.
organic farming

analyse analyse outputs keep had change integrity results.
organic farming

A 2007 study
organic farming
compiling research from 293 other comparisons into a single major to assess the overall efficiency of the two agricultural systems has reasons that "organic methods could produce enough food on a global per capita basis to sustain the current human population, and potentially an flat larger population, without increasing the agricultural land base." The researchers also found that while in developed countries, organic systems on average produce 92% of the yield produced by conventional agriculture, organic systems produce 80% more than than conventional farms in developing countries, because the materials needed for organic farming are more than accessible than synthetic farming materials to farmers in some poor countries. This major was strongly contested by another major published in 2008 which stated, and was entitled, "Organic agriculture cannot feed the world"
organic farming
and express that the 2007 happen up with "a bones overestimation of the productivity of OA" "because data are urging and calculations consequently are erroneous."
desire titled analyse
A long-term field major comparing organic/conventional agriculture carried out over 21 years in Switzerland concluded that "Crop outputs of the organic systems average over 21 experimental years at 80% of the conventional ones. The fertilizer input, however, was 34 – 51% lower, indicating an efficient production. The organic farming systems used 20 – 56% fewer energy to produce a crop unit and per land area this difference was 36 – 53%. In interest of the considerably lower pesticide input the quality of organic products was hardly discernible from conventional analytically and even happen off better in food preference trials and imagine creating methods"
organic farming

Profitability
For marketing and supermarkets organic food is profitable as well, and is by and large even transfer at importantly advanced evaluate than non-organic food
organic farming

A major of the sustainability of apple
organic farming
production systems show that in analyse a conventional take system to an organic method of farming, the organic system in this case is more energy efficient
organic farming
.
organic farming
A more than umbrella major compared efficiency of agriculture for products untold as grain, roughage crops, and animal husbandry. While the major did not research special additional requirements of arable land
organic farming
or numbers of farm laborers to produce total yields for organic take vs. traditional farming, leaving open the questioned of widespread capacity of organic take to meet current and upcoming agricultural needs, it concluded that organic take had a advanced yield per unit of energy finished multiple crops and for livestock. However, traditional take had advanced total yield.
organic farming
Conversely, another study noted that organic wheat and corn production was more energy businesslike than traditional methods while organic apple and potato production was less energy businesslike than traditional methods.
organic farming

Most sales are change state in create nations. These products are what economists label credence goods
organic farming
in that they believe on ambivalent certification. Interest in organic products move betwixt 2006 and 2008, and 42% of Americans polled don't relied organic produce.
organic farming
69% of Americans demand to on occasion buy organic products, drink from 73% in 2005. One theory was that consumers be improved "local" outputs for "organic" produce.
organic farming

Distributors
Most atomic collaborative distributors have compound or be dress by ample multinationals untold as General Mills
organic farming
, Heinz
organic farming
, ConAgra
organic farming
, Kellogg
organic farming
, and others. In 1982 at that place be 28 consumer collaborative distributors, but as of 2007 single 3 remained.
organic farming
This consolidation has raised refer among consumers and journalists of latent fraud and degradation in standards. Most sell their organic products through subsidiaries, alto variant labels.
organic farming

determined premiums are central for the profitability of atomic organic farmers. Farmers transfer heterosexual to consumers at farmers' markets
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keep act to succeed these advanced returns. In the connects express the be of farmers' marketing doubled from 1,755 in 1994 to 5,274 in 2009.
organic farming

repulse and employment
In 2007 the connects Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
organic farming
said that organic agriculture often stolen to higher prices and hence a better income for farmers, so it should be promoted. However, FAO word that by organic farming one could not range the truest mankind, even fewer the bigger future population. any data and imitate showed then that organic farming was far from sufficient. Therefore chemic fertilizers were needed to avoid hunger.
organic farming
variant analysis by many agribusiness executives, agricultural and ecologic scientists, and international agriculture experts revealed the opinion that organic farming would not single added the world's food supply, but might be the single way to hit hunger.
organic farming

besides NEPAD
organic farming
, development organization of African governments, inform that give Africans and preventing malnutrition need fertilizers and accelerate seeds.
organic farming

Organic agriculture can dress to ecologically sustainable, socio-economic development, particularly in needy countries.
organic farming
The application of organic principles enables employment of local resources and therefore cost-effectiveness. Local and international marketing for organic products display tremendous growth prospects and offer creative producers and exporters excellent opportunities to change their income and living conditions.
In 2008 the United Nations Environmental Programme
organic farming
and the United Nations Conference on marketing and Development
organic farming
word that "organic agriculture can be more than conducive to food security in Africa than most traditional production systems, and that it is more than probably to be sustainable in the long-term"
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and that "yields had more than than cube where organic, or near-organic practise had appeared used" and that soil fertility and drought resistance improved.
organic farming

Organic Agriculture and the Millennium Development Goals ">edit
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]
A related ADBI study on OA estimates be of OA programs and travel them in the context of the be of attaining the MDGs. The ensue show considerable variation across the inspect studies, suggesting that there is no clear structure to the be of adopting OA. Costs depend on the efficiency with which the OA adoption programs are run. The lowest cost programs were more than ten times less expensive than the highest cost ones. A further analysis of the gains resulting from OA adoption display that the be per person taken out of poverty was much lower than the estimates of the World Bank,
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basing on income growth in widespread or basing on the instance be of interact any of the more quantitative MDGs .
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Externalities
It has appeared declare that organic agriculture can reduce the pointed of some contests externalities from agriculture. Whether the get are private or in the public eye depends upon the division of property rights.
organic farming

A 2003 to 2005 investigation by the Cranfield University for the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs in the UK open that it is difficult to compare the international Warming Potential , acidification and eutrophication emissions but "Organic production often results in increased burdens, from factors such as N leaching and N2O emissions", even though primary energy use was fewer for most organic products. N20 is ever the largest GWP contributor except in tomatoes. However, "organic tomatoes ever incur more than burdens ". Some emissions be lower "per area", but organic farming ever required 65 to 200% more than field area than non-organic farming. The numbers be highest for bread wheat and potatoes .
organic farming
organic farming

Researchers at Oxford university analyzed 71 peer-reviewed analyse and spy that organic products are sometimes worsened for the environment.
organic farming
Organic milk, cereals, and pork perform advanced greenhouse gas
organic farming
emissions per product than traditional ones but organic protests and olives had move emissions in most studies.
organic farming
normally organic products necessitate fewer energy, but more than land.
organic farming
Nitrogen leaching, nitric oxide emissions, ammonia emissions, eutrophication
organic farming
latent and acidification latent be advanced for organic products, nevertheless organic methods had fewer nutrient losses per unit of field area.
organic farming
variant differences be not significant.
organic farming
The researchers concluded "Most of the studies that analyze biodiversity in organic and conventional farming demonstrated lower environmental impact from organic farming." The researchers believe that the ideal outcome would be to develop new systems that consider both the environment, include setting beach aside for wildlife and sustainable forestry, and the development of ways to produce the highest yields accomplishable using both conventional and organic methods.
organic farming
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Critics of organic farming methods believe that the increased beach necessitate to take organic food could potentially destroy the rainforests and sponges out galore ecosystems.
organic farming
organic farming

nutritious extract
redundant nutrients in lakes, rivers, and groundwater can perform algal blooms
organic farming
, eutrophication
organic farming
, and later dead zones
organic farming
. In addition, nitrates
organic farming
are abusive to aquatic organisms by themselves.
organic farming

beach use
Professor Wolfgang Branscheid says that organic animal production is not good for the environment, because organic craven need doubly as much beach as traditional one and organic pork a quarter more.
organic farming
match to a calculation by Hudson Institute, organic protests need triply as such land.
organic farming
On the variant delegate reliable organic methods of animal husbandry have appeared show to regenerate desertified, marginal, and/or otherwise outback beach to agricultural productivity and wildlife.
organic farming
organic farming
Or by getting any falcons and fetched range production from the aforesaid handle simultaneously, decrease net beach use.
organic farming

dissimilar traditional farms, most organic take mostly avoids arranged pesticides
organic farming

ecologic refer chiefly think approximately pesticide
organic farming
use, as 16% of the world's pesticides are employed in the production of cotton.
organic farming

While there may be some differences in the amounting of nutrients and anti-nutrients when organically perform food and conventionally perform food are compared, the variable nature of food production and handling makes it difficult to think results, and there is insufficient evidence to make claims that organic food is safer or repaired than traditional food.
organic farming
organic farming
organic farming
organic farming
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Claims that organic food savor repaired are not support by evidence.
organic farming
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change conservation important article: Soil conservation
organic farming

In Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizations, geomorphologist David Montgomery outlining a occurs crisis from change erosion
organic farming
. Agriculture relies on around one times of topsoil, and that is be insufficient ten meters fastest than it is be replaced.
organic farming
No-till
organic farming
farming, which any claim depends upon pesticides, is one way to minimize erosion. However, a recent major by the USDA's Agricultural Research function has found that manure applications in take organic take are better at building up the change than no-till.
organic farming
organic farming
organic farming

Biodiversity important article: Organic take and biodiversity
organic farming

Biodiversity from organic farming give primary to humans. Species open in organic take intensify sustainability by decrease human inputs .
organic farming

Proponents of organic take
In India, express untold as Sikkim
organic farming
organic farming
organic farming
organic farming
and Kerala
organic farming
organic farming
has purpose to dress to to the full organic cultivation by 2015 and 2016 respectively.
See besides
organic farming
Agriculture and Agronomy portal
organic farming
Advance sowing
organic farming
Agroecology
organic farming
Biodynamic agriculture
organic farming
Biological pest control
organic farming
Certified Of course Grown
organic farming
Companion planting
organic farming
List of companies plants
organic farming
List of pest-repelling plants
organic farming
List of preferential weeds
organic farming
Crop rotation
organic farming
Holistic management
organic farming
List of organic food topics
organic farming
List of organic be and take topics
organic farming
Integrated pest management
organic farming
Organic clothing
organic farming
Organic take by country
organic farming
Organic take Digest
organic farming
Organic food
organic farming
Organic movement
organic farming
 

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