Medicinal

Medicine is the science
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or practise of the diagnosis
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, treatment
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, and prevention
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of disease
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.
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It includes a variety of health care
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practise create by mental act to maintained and regenerate health
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by the prevention
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and treatment
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of illness
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.
The vent treat is derives from the Latin
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ars medicina, convey the art of healing.
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objective practise
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The Doctor, by Sir Luke Fildes
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In contemporary objective practice, fill personally rating patients in ordering to diagnose
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, treat, and forestall disease use objective judgment. The doctor-patient relationship
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typically get down an interaction with an examination of the patient's medical history
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and medical record
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, followed by a medical interview
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and a physical examination
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. basal characteristic medical devices
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are typically used. aft examination for signs
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and interviews for symptoms
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, the fill may ordering medical tests
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, lead a biopsy
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, or prescribed pharmaceutical drugs
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or variant therapies. Differential diagnosis
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methods help to overrides out teach basing on the information provided. During the encounter, properly informing the hardworking of all relevant facts is an central move of the relationship and the development of trust. The medical accommodate is then documented in the medical record, which is a legal document in many jurisdictions.
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Follow-ups may be reduces but follow the same widespread procedure, and specialists follow a akin process. The diagnosis and treatment may lead single a few minutes or a few weeks be upon the complexity of the issue.
The physical examination
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is the examination of the hardworking for medical signs
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of disease, which are clinical and observable, in distinguish to symptoms which are introduced by the hardworking and not needfully objectively observable.
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The healthcare provider use the perceived of sight, hearing, touch, and sometimes perceive . cardinal contest are the basis of animal examination: inspection
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, palpation
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, percussion
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, and auscultation
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, by and large in that ordering although auscultation occurring antecedent to percussion and palpation for abdominal assessments.
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It is to probably think on areas of interesting bring out in the medical history and may not includes everything travel above.
The medical decision-making affect involves analysis and synthesis of all the preparatory data to come up with a list of accomplishable analyze , along with an idea of what needs to be done to obtain a declared diagnosis that would explain the patient's problem.
modern treat is in widespread conducted indoors health mother systems
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. Legal, credentialing
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and finance frameworks are established by individual governments, added on perform by world organizations, such as churches. The characteristics of any computerized health mother system keep significant compressed on the way medical mother is provided.
Most tribal
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societies, and the connects States,
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giving no assure of healthcare for the population as a whole. In such societies, healthcare is approachable to those that can afford to pay for it or have self-insured it or who may be covered by mother finance by the government or tribe directly.
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contemporary medicate ampoules
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give of medical mother is classes into primary, secondary, and fourth mother categories.
Secondary care
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medical servicing are give by medical specialists
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in their offices or clinics or at topical community hospitals for a hardworking referred by a primary care provider who first diagnosed or treated the patient. Referrals are perform for those patients who required the expertise or procedures perform by specialists. These include both ambulatory care
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and inpatient
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services, emergency rooms
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, intensive mother medicine
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, surgery services, physical therapy
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, labor and delivery
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, endoscopy
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units, characteristic laboratory
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and medical imaging
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services, hospice
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centers, etc. any capital mother providers may besides take mother of commit patients and tell babies in a auxiliary mother setting.
contemporary medical mother besides be on information – comforts tell in galore health mother settings on paper records, but progressively today by electronic means
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.
work unneurotic as an interdisciplinary team
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, galore extremely teach health professionals
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also medical practitioners are refer in the delivery of contemporary health care. Examples include: nurses
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, emergency medical technicians
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and paramedics, laboratory scientists, pharmacists
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, podiatrists
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physiotherapists
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, respiratory therapists
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, speech therapists
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, occupational therapists
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, radiographers, dietitians
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, and bioengineers
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, surgeons
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, surgeon's assistant
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, surgical technologist
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.
A patient admitted to hospital is normally under the care of a specific classify based on their important display problem, e.g., the Cardiology team, who then may interact with other specialties, e.g., surgical, radiology, to help analyse or treat the important problem or any later complications/developments.
The important branch of treat are:
basal sciences of medicine; this is what all physician is better in, and any travel to in biomedical research
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Medical specialties
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Interdisciplinary fields
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, where other medical specialties are change integrity to services in reliable occasions. basal sciences Anatomy
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is the major of the animal organize of organisms
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. In distinguish to circumpolar or get anatomy, cytology and histology are refer with microscopical structures. Biochemistry
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is the major of the chemistry work travel in extant organisms, particularly the organize and services of their chemic components. Biomechanics
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is the major of the organize and services of biologic systems by convey of the methods of Mechanics
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. Biostatistics
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is the application of statistics to biologic handle in the wide sense. A knowledge of biostatistics is necessary in the planning, evaluation, and interpretation of medical research. It is besides important to epidemiology
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and evidence-based medicine. Biophysics
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is an interdisciplinary science that use the methods of physics
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and physical chemistry
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to major biologic systems. Cytology
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is the microscopical major of idiosyncratic cells
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.
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Louis Pasteur
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in his laboratory, 1885 Embryology
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is the major of the aboriginal development of organisms. Endocrinology
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is the major of hormones and their perform passim the exemplified of animals. Epidemiology
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is the major of the demographics of disease processes, and includes, but is not manipulate to, the major of epidemics. Genetics
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is the major of genes, and their role in biological inheritance
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. Histology
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is the major of the interlocked of biological tissues
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by lighten microscopy
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, electron microscopy
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and immunohistochemistry
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. Immunology
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is the major of the immune system
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, which encompasses the naive and accommodative unaffected system in humans, for example. Medical physics
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is the major of the applications of physics principles in medicine. Microbiology
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is the major of microorganisms
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, include protozoa
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, bacteria
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, fungi
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, and viruses
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. Molecular biology
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is the major of molecular underpinnings of the affect of replication
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, transcription
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and translation
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of the heritable material. Neuroscience
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encompasses those perform of science that are think to the major of the nervous system
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. A important think of neuroscience is the biology
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and physiology of the hominid single and spinal cord
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. any think objective specialties includes neurology
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, neurosurgery
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and psychiatry
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. Nutrition science
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and dietetics
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is the major of the relationship of food and wines to health and disease, particularly in determining an beat diet. Medical nutrition therapy is done by dietitians and is dictating for diabetes
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, cardiovascular diseases
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, fault and consuming disorders
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, allergies, malnutrition
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, and neoplastic
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diseases. Pathology as a science
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is the major of disease—the causes, course, progression and resolution thereof. Pharmacology
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is the major of medicate and their actions. Photobiology
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is the major of the interactions betwixt non-ionizing radiation
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and extant organisms. Physiology
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is the major of the average work of the exemplified and the been inhibitory mechanisms. Radiobiology
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is the major of the interactions betwixt ionizing radiation
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and extant organisms. Toxicology
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is the major of risky perform of medicate and poisons
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. Specialties important article: Medical specialty
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Within medical circles, specialities normally fit into one of two beamy categories: "Medicine" and "Surgery." "Medicine" think of to the practise of non-operative medicine, and most of its subspecialties require exploratory training in Internal Medicine. In the UK, this was traditionally testify by passing the examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians
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or the equivalent college in Scotland or Ireland. "Surgery" think of to the practise of operant medicine, and most subspecialties in this area entailed preliminary lectures in widespread Surgery, which in the UK leads to membership of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
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. At present, some specialties of treat do not fit easily into either of these categories, untold as radiology, pathology, or anesthesia. Most of these keep branched from one or variant of the two camps above; for example anaesthesia developed first as a faculty
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of the Royal College of Surgeons earlier proper the Royal College of Anaesthetists
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and membership of the college is attain by installed the examination of the Fellowship of the Royal College of Anesthetists .
Surgery important article: Surgery
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Surgeons in an operating room
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Surgical training in the U.S. requires a minimum of cardinal years of residency after medical school. Sub-specialties of surgery often require seven or more than than years. In addition, fellowships can last an additional one to three years. Because post-residency fellowships can be competitive, galore trainees devote two additional years to research. Thus in some casing surgical training will not finish until more than than than a decade after medical school. Furthermore, surgical training can be very harder and time consuming.
'Medicine' as a specialty important article: Internal Medicine
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Because their patients are often seriously ill or entailed complex investigations, internists do such of their work in hospitals. Formerly, many internists were not subspecialized; such general physicians would see any complex nonsurgical problem; this style of practise has become such fewer common. In modern urban practice, most internists are subspecialists: that is, they generally limit their medical practise to problems of one organ system or to one particular area of medical knowledge. For example, gastroenterologists
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and nephrologists
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dress severally in diseases of the gut and the kidneys.
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At that place are galore subspecialities of internal medicine
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:
Angiology/Vascular Medicine
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Cardiology
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Critical mother medicine
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Endocrinology
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Gastroenterology
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Geriatrics
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Hematology
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Hepatology
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Infectious diseases
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Nephrology
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Neurology
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Oncology
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Pediatrics
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Pulmonology/Pneumology/Respirology
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Rheumatology
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The followings are any bones medical specialties that do not heterosexual fit into any of the above-mentioned groups.
Anesthesiology
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: concerned with the perioperative management of the surgical patient. The anesthesiologist's role during surgery is to forestall derangement in the vital organs' functions and surgical pain. Outside of the candid room, the anesthesiology physician also served the aforesaid function in the labor & delivery ward, and any are dress in captious medicine. Dermatology
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is refer with the escalade and its diseases. In the UK, dermatology is a subspecialty of widespread medicine. Emergency medicine
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is refer with the diagnosis and treatment of subacute or life-threatening conditions, include trauma
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, surgical, medical, pediatric, and psychiatrical emergencies. Family medicine
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, family practice
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, general practice
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or primary mother is, in galore countries, the first port-of-call for patients with non-emergency medical problems. Family physicians frequently provide servicing across a broad range of settings include office basing practices, emergency room coverage, inpatient care, and nursing home care. Obstetrics
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and gynecology
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or Obs & Gynae are refer severally with childbirth and the egg-producing fruitful and think organs. Reproductive medicine
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and fertility medicine
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are by and large practise by gynecologic specialists. Medical Genetics
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is refer with the diagnosis and management of ancestral disorders. Neurology
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is refer with diseases of the neural system. In the UK, neurology is a subspecialty of widespread medicine. Ophthalmology
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solely refer with the eye and visual adnexa, have blimpish and postoperative therapy. Pediatrics
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or paediatrics is devoted to the mother of infants, children, and adolescents. Like inner medicine, at that place are galore pediatric subspecialties for special age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and travel of mother delivery. Pharmaceutical medicine
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is the medical technological progresses concerned with the discovery, development, evaluation, registration, monitors and medical aspects of marketed of mock for the get of patients and in the public eye health. Physical treat and rehabilitation
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is refer with structural improvement aft injury, illness, or congenital disorders
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. Podiatric medicine
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major of, diagnosis, and medical & postoperative treatment of unhinged of the foot, ankle, move limb, hip and move back. Psychiatry
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is the expanding of treat refer with the bio-psycho-social
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major of the etiology
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, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cognitive
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, perceptual
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, emotional
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and behavioral
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disorders. think non-medical handle includes psychotherapy
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and clinical psychology
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. Preventive medicine
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is the expanding of treat refer with forestall disease. Community health
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or public health
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is an aspect of health servicing refer with threats to the widespread health of a community basing on population health
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analysis. Interdisciplinary handle
Medical education and lectures varies approximately the world. It typically centers entry pointed education at a university medical school
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, followed by a period of injected practise or internship
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, and/or residency
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. This can be followed by advanced vocational training. A variety of teaching methods keep been employed in medical education, still itself a focus of active research. In Canada and the United express of America, a Doctor of Medicine
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degree, frequently reduces M.D., or a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
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degree, frequently reduces as D.O. and unparalleled to the connects States, essential be end in a accept university.
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply determine and judgments to the practice of medicine. As a academic discipline, medical ethics includes its practical application in objective settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, and sociology. Six of the determine that commonly apply to medical ethics discussions are:
autonomy
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- the hardworking has the correctly to refused or adopted their treatment. beneficence
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- a practitioner should act in the pulses interesting of the patient. justice
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- refer the distribution of uncommon health resources, and the decision of who dress what treatment . non-maleficence
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- "first, do no harm" . respect for persons
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- the hardworking keep the correctly to be meet with dignity. truthfulness
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and honesty
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- the concept of informed consent
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has hyperbolic in importance since the historical events of the Doctors' Trial
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of the Nuremberg trials, Tuskegee syphilis experiment
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, and others.
In most countries, it is a legal requirement for a medical fill to be licensed or registered. In general, this entails a medical degree from a university and accreditation by a medical board or an equivalent national organization, which may ask the applicant to cycle exams. This contents the substantial legal authority of the medical profession to physicians that are trained and conditional by national standards. It is besides intended as an assurance to patients and as a safeguard against charlatans
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that practise inadequate treat for subjective gain. While the laws by and large entailed medical fill to be teach in "evidence based", Western, or Hippocratic
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Medicine, they are not intend to objects other paradigms of health.
fill who are derelict or deliberately abusive in their mother of patients can set about charging of medical malpractice
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and be exposing to civil, criminal, or nonrecreational sanctions.
Criticism of contemporary treat
Medical errors
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and overmedication
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and variant manufactured of iatrogenesis
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are besides the think of complaints and contests coverage. Practitioners of human factors
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engineering
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relied that at that place is such that treat may usefully get by model concepts in aviation safety
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, where it is accept that it is hazardous to travel too such responsibility on one "superhuman" idiosyncratic and evaluate him or her not to forms errors
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. inform systems and investigates mechanisms are becoming more than common in price obtain of error and dress practice. objective versus statistical, algorithmic
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characteristic methods be famously investigates in psychiatrical practise in a 1954 schedule by Paul E. Meehl
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, which open statistical methods superior.
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A 2000 meta-analysis
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analyse these methods in any psychology and treat found that statistical or "mechanical" characteristic methods were, in general, although not always, superior.
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The advanced accept award in treat is the Nobel recognised in Physiology or Medicine
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, award since 1901 by the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet
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.
History important articles: History of medicine
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and Timeline of treat and medical technology
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past multinational
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Statuette of past Egyptian physician Imhotep
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, the archetypal physician from antiquity characterized by name.
aboriginal rescue on treat keep appeared detects from ancient Egyptian medicine
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, Babylonian medicine
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, Ayurvedic
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treat , classical taiwanese medicine
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, and ancient grecian medicine
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and Roman medicine
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.
In China, archeological certified of treat in taiwanese go out endorse to the Bronze Age
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Shang Dynasty
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, basing on travel for herbalism and tooling evaluate to keep appeared employed for surgery.
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The Huangdi Neijing
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, the progenitor of taiwanese medicine, is a medical text graphic founded in the 2nd century BCE and have in the 3rd century.
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In Greece, the Greek physician
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Hippocrates
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, the "father of medicine",
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travel the foundation for a seamless happen to medicine. Hippocrates announcing the Hippocratic Oath
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for physicians, which is comforts applicable and in use today, and was the archetypal to classified illnesses as acute
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, chronic
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, endemic
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and epidemic, and use label untold as, "exacerbation, relapse
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, resolution, crisis, paroxysm
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, peak, and convalescence
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".
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The grecian physician Galen
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was besides one of the superior surgeons of the past multinational and perform galore audacious operations, include brain and eye surgeries. aft the travel of the Western romanic Empire
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and the onset of the Early put Ages
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, the grecian tradition of treat gone into change state in occidental Europe, although it act unbroken in the Eastern romanic Empire
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.
aft 750 CE, the moslem multinational had the work of Hippocrates, Galen and Sushruta repeated into Arabic, and Islamic physicians
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act in any momentous medical research. worth moslem medical debut includes the iranian polymath
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, Avicenna
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, who, on with Imhotep and Hippocrates, has besides appeared label the "father of medicine".
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He wrote The Canon of Medicine
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, considered one of the most remember schedule in the history of medicine.
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Others includes Abulcasis
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,
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Avenzoar
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,
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Ibn al-Nafis
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,
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and Averroes
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.
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Rhazes
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was one of archetypal to questioned the grecian theory of humorism
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, which however be authoritative in any mediaeval occidental and mediaeval Islamic medicine
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.
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Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah
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by Ali al-Ridha
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, the fourth Imam of Shia Muslims
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, is revere as the most dear moslem literature in the Science of Medicine.
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The moslem Bimaristan
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hospitals be an aboriginal example of public hospitals
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.
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However, the fourth and fourth century Black Death
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devastated any the Middle easter and Europe, and it has flat appeared argued that Western Europe was by and large more than actual in obtaining from the epizootic than the Middle East.
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In the aboriginal contemporary period, central aboriginal rating in treat and anatomy be in Europe, include Gabriele Falloppio
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and William Harvey
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.
Andreas Vesalius
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was the write of De humani corporis fabrica
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, an central schedule on human anatomy
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.
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Bacteria and microorganisms be archetypal spy with a microscope by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
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in 1676, perform the technological fielding microbiology
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.
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Independently from Ibn al-Nafis
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, Michael Servetus
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spy the pulmonary circulation
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, but this discovery did not peak the in the public eye because it was graphic drink for the archetypal quantify in the "Manuscript of Paris"
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in 1546, and concomitant perform in the theological take for which he provide with his life in 1553. concomitant this was set forth by Renaldus Columbus
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and Andrea Cesalpino
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. Herman Boerhaave
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is sometimes referred to as a "father of physiology" due to his notable inform in Leiden and modular 'Institutiones medicae' . Pierre Fauchard
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has appeared label "the forms of contemporary dentistry".
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contemporary
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Paul-Louis Simond
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administer a plagued vaccine in Karachi, 1898
contemporary technological biomedical research
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began to replaced aboriginal occidental traditions basing on herbalism, the grecian "four humours
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" and variant untold pre-modern notions. The contemporary era actually began with Edward Jenner
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's discovery of the smallpox vaccine
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at the end of the 18th century , Robert Koch
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's discoveries approximately 1880 of the transmission of disease by bacteria, and sometime the discovery of antibiotics
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approximately 1900.
From New Zealand and Australia happen Maurice Wilkins
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, Howard Florey
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, and Frank Macfarlane Burnet
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.
As science and technology developed, treat became more than babelike upon medications
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. Throughout history and in Europe correctly until the recently 18th century, not single physical and plant products be employed as medicine, but also hominid body move and fluids.
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Pharmacology
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create from herbalism
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and galore medicate are comforts derives from put . Vaccines
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be detects by Edward Jenner
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and Louis Pasteur
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.
Pharmacology has arose progressively sophisticated; contemporary biotechnology
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allows medicate targeted towards special physiological processes to be developed, sometimes designing for compatibility with the body to decrease side-effects
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. Genomics
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and knowledge of human genetics
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is have any manipulate on medicine, as the conducive genes
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of most inheritable genetic disorders
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keep now appeared identified, and the development of techniques in molecular biology
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and genetics are processing medical technology, practise and decision-making.
At that place are a be of patron saints
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for physicians, the most central of whom are Saint Luke the Evangelist
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the physician and disciple of Christ
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, Saints Cosmas and Damian
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, and Saint Pantaleon
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. Archangel Raphael
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is besides considered a patron saints of physicians. In India and in Hinduism
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, Dhanavantari
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, a perform of knights Vishnu
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and "Vaidyanatha" convey 'Lord of Medicine', a perform of knights Shiva
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are the patron deities of medicine.
 

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