Human civilization

A civilization is any complex
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state society
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legendary by urban development
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, social stratification
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, symbolic
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communication manufactured , and a listening separation from and domination finished the natural environment
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.
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Civilizations are closely think with and frequently favor be by variant socio-politico-economic characteristics, include centralization
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, the domestication
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of any humans and variant organisms, specialization of labor
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, culturally grains ideologies of progress
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and supremacism
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, monumental
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architecture
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, taxation
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, social dependence upon agriculture
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, and expansionism
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.
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Historically, a civilization was an "advanced" grow in distinguish to more than purportedly barbarian
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, savage, or primitive cultures
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.
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In this beamy sense, a civilization identify with non-centralized feudalistic or tribal societies, include the grow of nomadic pastoralists
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or hunter-gatherers
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. As an uncountable noun, civilization besides think of to the affect of a society perform into a centralized, urbanized, contrasted structure.
The aboriginal emergence of civilizations is by and large think with the close re-create of the Neolithic Revolution
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, went in the comparatively abstain affect of state formation
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, a governmental development think with the appearance of a select elite. This neolithic technology and lifestyle was open archetypal in the Middle East
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, and Yangtze
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and concomitant in the Yellow river
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basin in China , and concomitant spread. But akin "revolutions" besides began independently from 9,000 years ago in untold travel as the Norte Chico civilization
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in Peru
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and Mesoamerica
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at the Balsas River
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. These be among the six civilizations intercontinental that originating independently.
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The neolithic revolution in turn was babelike upon the development of sedentarism, the domestication of grain and animals and the development lifestyles which allowed economies of scale
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and the accumulation of excess production by certain societal sectors. The transition from "complex chieftains" to "civilisations", while still disputed, seems to be associated with the development of note structures, in which give was favor control by an elite
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restrict 1 History of the concept
human civilization
2 Characteristics
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3 Cultural identity
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4 composite systems
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5 History
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5.1 Origins of civilization
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5.2 aboriginal civilizations
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5.2.1 The Neolithic Era
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5.2.2 The stained Age
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5.2.3 The grinding Age
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5.3 mediaeval to aboriginal Modern
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5.4 Modernity
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6 travel of civilizations
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7 Future
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8 See also
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9 state and references
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10 Bibliography
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11 outermost links
human civilization

The vent civilization happen from the 16th-century French
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civilisé , from Latin civilis , think to civis and civitas .
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The important treatise is Norbert Elias
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's The civilized Process
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, which investigates societal mores
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from medieval dignified society
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to the Early contemporary period
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.
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In The Philosophy of Civilization , Albert Schweitzer
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outlining two opinions: one strictly material
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and the variant mercenary and ethical
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. He said that the world crisis was from humanity losing the ethical idea of civilization, "the sum total of all develop perform by man in every sphere of contest and from every aim of think in so far as the develop helps towards the spiritual perfecting of individuals as the develop of all progress."
In the recently 1700s and aboriginal 1800s, during the French revolution
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, civilization was express singular
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, ne'er plural, and signified the develop of humanity as a whole. This is comforts the inspect in French.
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The use of civilizations as a enumerable noun was in infrequent use in the 19th century,
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but has arose such more than communal in the concomitant 20th century, sometimes conscionable convey culture
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.
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Only in this generalized perceive perform it arose accomplishable to covenant of a "medieval civilization," which in Elias's perceive would keep been an oxymoron.
societal scientists untold as V. Gordon Childe
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keep designate a be of traits that stratified a civilization from variant kinds of society.
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Civilizations keep appeared identified by their convey of subsistence, copied of livelihood
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, settlement
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patterns, manufactured of government
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, social stratification
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, businesslike systems, literacy
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, and variant cultural traits.
Civilizations keep clearly different settlement imitate from variant societies. The vent civilization is sometimes merely be as "'living in cities'".
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Non-farmers be to garner in cities to take and to trade.
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"No one in the history of civilization has perform our understand of science and earthy philosophy more than than the ample Greek
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philosopher and scientist Aristotle
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, who dedicated a dense and distributive manipulate for more than than two eight years" —Gary B. Ferngren
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Economically, civilizations demonstrates more than complex imitate of ownership and transmit than fewer perform societies. Living in one travel allows people to accumulate more than personal possessions
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than mobile people. any populate besides dress landed property
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, or clannish ownership of the land. Because a percentage of populate in civilizations do not branch their own food, they essential trade
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their goods and servicing for food in a market
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system, or earn food doner the fault of tribute
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, redistributive taxation
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, tariffs
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or tithes
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from the food perform filtered of the population. aboriginal hominid grow services doner a gift economy
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button by manipulate barter
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systems. By the aboriginal Iron Age
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modern civilizations create money
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as a medium of exchange for progressively complex transactions. To oversimplify, in a village the take perform a pot for the brewer and the brewer compensates the take by giving him a certain amount of beer. In a city, the take may requires a new roof, the roofer may requires new shoes, the cobbler may requires new horseshoes, the blacksmith may requires a new coat, and the tanner may requires a new pot. These people may not be personally familiar with one another and their needs may not occur all at the same time. A pecuniary system is a way of organizing these obligations to ensure that they are fulfilled. From the days of the earliest monetarised civilisations, monopolistic controls of pecuniary systems have benefited the social and political elites.
Aided by their division of labor and principal government planning, civilizations keep developed many other antithetic cultural traits. These includes perform religion
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, development in the arts
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, and innumerable new moving in science
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and technology
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.
Civilization has appeared distributed by colonization
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, invasion
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, religious conversion
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, the extension of bureaucratic control
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and trade
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, and by introducing agriculture and writing to non-literate peoples. Some non-civilized populate may volitionally adapt to gloss behaviour. But civilization is besides distributed by the technical, mercenary and social dominance that civilization engenders.
Traditionally, polities that managed to succeed worth military, ideological and economic give be themselves as "civilized" as opposed to other societies or human classify which lay outdoors their sphere of influence, calling the latter barbarians
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, savages
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, and primitives
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, while in a modern-day context, "civilized people" keep appeared stratified with indigenous people
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or tribal societies
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.
Cultural identity
The intricate culture associated with civilization has a tendency to distributed to and influence other cultures, sometimes assimilating them into the civilization . Many civilizations are really large cultural spheres containing many nations and regions. The civilization in which someone lives is that person's wide cultural identity.
This "unified culture" concept of civilization besides affect the theories of historian Arnold J. Toynbee
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in the mid-twentieth century. Toynbee analyse civilization affect in his multi-volume A major of History
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, which traced the rise and, in most cases, the decline of 21 civilizations and five "arrested civilizations." Civilizations generally change state and fell, match to Toynbee, because of the failure of a "creative minority", doner moral or sacred decline, to accommodate some important challenge, instead than leased economic or environmental causes.
different groups of theorists, building use of systems theory
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, sound at a civilization as a complex system
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, i.e., a framework by which a groups of objects can be analyzed that work in concert to produce some result. Civilizations can be seen as communicate of cities that emerge from pre-urban cultures, and are be by the economic, political, military, diplomatic, social, and cultural interactions among them. Any organization is a composite social system
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, and a civilization is a large organization. Systems theory support police against axiomatic but take analogies in the major and description of civilizations.
galore theorists opposed that the entire multinational has already arose incorporating into a only "world system
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", a affect characterized as globalization
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. Different civilizations and societies all finished the globe are economically, politically, and even culturally babelike in many ways. There is debate finished when this integration began, and what decide of integration – cultural, technological, economic, political, or military-diplomatic – is the key indicator in determining the extent of a civilization. David Wilkinson
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has declare that businesslike and military-diplomatic integration of the Mesopotamian
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and Egyptian
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civilizations prove in the creation of what he label the "Central Civilization" approximately 1500 BCE.
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Central Civilization later expanded to includes the intact Middle easter and Europe, and sometime expanded to a international scale with European colonization, integrating the Americas, Australia, China and Japan by the nineteenth century. According to Wilkinson, civilizations can be culturally heterogeneous, like the Central Civilization, or homogeneous, like the nipponese civilization. What Huntington calls the "clash of civilizations" might be legendary by Wilkinson as a clash of cultural spheres indoors a single international civilization. Others point to the Crusades
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as the archetypal travel in globalization. The more traditional viewpoint is that communicate of societies keep grow and reduces since past times, and that the current globalized economy and culture is a product of recent European colonialism.
History This separate is in a inventory dress that may be repaired show use prose
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. You can encouraging by converting this separate to prose, if appropriate
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. Editing help
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is available. Origins of civilization
The affect of sedentarization
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is archetypal think to keep happen approximately 12,000 BCE in the Levant
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region of southbound Asia though variant regions approximately the multinational shortly followed. The emergence of civilization is by and large think with the Neolithic
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, or Agricultural Revolution, which happen in antithetic locations betwixt 8,000 and 5,000 BCE, specifically in southwestern/southern Asia, northern/central Africa and principal America.
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At first the Neolithic was associated with improved subsistence cultivation, where continuous farming led to the depletion of soil fertility resulting in the requirement to cultivate fields favor and favor removed from the settlement, eventually compelling the settlement itself to move. In major semi-arid river valleys, annual flooding re-create soil fertility to be re-create yearly, with the prove that population densities could tower significantly. This encouraged a "secondary products revolution
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" where domesticated animals became multipurpose for more than than meat production; being employed also for milk, wool, and physical traction of travel and carts. The 8.2 Kiloyear waterless Event
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and the 5.9 Kiloyear
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Interpluvial
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saw the altered out of arid regions and a bones distributed of deserts.
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This climate change improved the cost-benefit ratio of enzootic violence between communities, which saw the abandonment of unwalled village communities and the appearance of wall cities, think with the archetypal civilisations. This "urban revolution
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" marked the founded of harbours agriculture and physical domestication which dress economies and cities to develop. It was associated with the note monopoly and violence, the appearance of a spend class and endemic warfare, abstain development of hierarchies and a fall in the status of women.
The stained Age important article: Bronze Age
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stained Age South Asia
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Indus Valley Civilization
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Ancient happen East
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Mesopotamia
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Levant
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/ Canaan
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Bronze Age Anatolia
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/ Aegean
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Bronze Age Europe
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Aegean Civilizations
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Minoan Civilization
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Mycenaean Greece
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Bronze Age China
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Africa
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Ancient Egypt
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Ancient Ethiopia
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Ancient Somalia
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Pre-Columbian Americas
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Norte Chico
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/ Caral
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Olmec
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Zapotec civilization
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The grinding Age important article: Iron Age
human civilization

Karl Jaspers
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, the German historical philosopher, declare that the past civilizations be dressed greatly by an Axial Age
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in the period betwixt 800 BCE–200 BCE during which a series of antheral sages, prophets, sacred reformers and philosophers, from China, India, Iran, Israel and Greece, changed the direction of civilizations.
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William beefy McNeill
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declare that this period of history was one in which grow motion betwixt previously segment civilizations saw the "closure of the oecumene
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", and led to accelerated societal change from China to the Mediterranean, think with the spread of coinage, ample empires and new religions. This think has tardive been endorse by Christopher Chase-Dunn and variant world systems theorists
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.
Mediterranean civilizations Etruscans
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Mediterranean civilizations of the Classical Period
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Ancient Greece
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Ancient Rome
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Hellenistic civilization
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put eastbound civilizations Ancient Israel
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Persia
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since the Achaemenids
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southbound asiatic civilizations Vedic India
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easter Asia civilizations Ancient China
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, Shang Dynasty
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, Zhou Dynasty
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, eurasiatic civilizations past Nomads, Scythia
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, Celts
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Dacians
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Africa
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Kush
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Axum
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Nok
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mediaeval to aboriginal contemporary favor information: Middle Ages
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and Early contemporary period
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favor information: Hinduism
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, Spread of Buddhism
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, Spread of Islam
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and Age of Discovery
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Christendom
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Western Christianity
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Eastern Christianity
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Islamic World
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Islamic coral Age
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Caliphate
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Somalia
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Adal Sultanate
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Ajuuraan Empire
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Warsangali Empire
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Mongol-Turkish Mughal India
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Ottoman Empire
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Asia Chola Empire
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, Tamil Nadu
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, India Pandya Empire
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, Tamil Nadu
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, India Chera Kingdom
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, Tamil Nadu
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, India Pallava Kingdom
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, Tamil Nadu
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, India Sui China
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Tang China
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Song China
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Goryeo Korea
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Mongol Empire
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Ming China
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Feudal Japan
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Confucian Vietnam
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Southeast Asia
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Funan
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, Chenla
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, Champa
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, Anghor Cambodia
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Dvaravati
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, Hariphunchai
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, Sukhothai
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, Ayutthaya Kingdom
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, pre contemporary Thailand
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Pagan Burma
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Philippine modular Period
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Sri Vijaya
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, Sailendra
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, Mataram
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and Majapahit
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Moundbuilder and Puebla civilizations Ancient Pueblo peoples
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Caddoan Mississippian culture
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Coles Creek culture
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Fort Ancient
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Hohokam
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Mogollon culture
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Oneota
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Patayan
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Plaquemine culture
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Mesomerican civilizations Tlaxcala
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Toltec
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Aztec civilization
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Maya civilization
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Zapotec civilization
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Tarascan state
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Tlapanec people
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K'iche' Kingdom of Q'umarkaj
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Andean civilizations Chimor
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Kingdom of Cusco
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/Inca Empire
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Aymara
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Muisca
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African civilizations Wagadou
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Mali Empire
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Songhai Empire
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Ashanti Empire
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Abyssinia
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Benin Empire
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Modernity favor information: Modernity
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favor information: cultural bloc
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, Major multinational religions
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, world language
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and The single of Civilizations
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Western world
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Western Europe
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North America
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South America
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Australia
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and New Zealand
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Intermediate Region
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Eastern Europe
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Arab world
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Iranian world
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Israel
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Turkic world
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Eastern world
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East Asia
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China
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Japan
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Korea
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South Asia
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India
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Southeast Asia
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Malay world
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Philippines
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Sub-Saharan Africa
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travel of civilizations This separate is in a inventory dress that may be repaired show use prose
human civilization
. You can encouraging by converting this separate to prose, if appropriate
human civilization
. Editing help
human civilization
is available. important article: Societal collapse
human civilization

The change state of Rome was the earthy and inevitable effect of immoderate greatness. Prosperity ripened the principle of decay; the cause of the destruction factors with the extent of conquest; and, as soon as time or accident had removed the artificial supports, the large fabric yielded to the forces of its own weight. The story of the ruin is simple and obvious; and instead of investigative why the Roman Empire was destroyed, we should rather be processing that it has subsisted for so long., pp. 173–174.-Chapter XXXVIII: decide Of Clovis.--Part VI. General Observations On The Fall Of The Roman Empire In The West.]
Theodor Mommsen
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in his "History of Rome
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", promising Rome dress with the improved of the Western romanic Empire
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in 476 CE and he besides been towards a biologic analogy of "genesis," "growth," "senescence," "collapse" and "decay." Oswald Spengler
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, in his "Decline of the West
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" rejected Petrarch
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's chronological division, and suggested that there had been single thousand "mature civilizations." Growing cultures, he argued, tend to develop into imperialist civilizations which branch and ultimately collapse, with antiauthoritarian forms of government ushering in plutocracy
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and eventually imperialism
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. Arnold J. Toynbee
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in his "A major of History
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" promising that at that place had appeared a such larger number of civilizations, include a small number of grab civilizations, and that all civilizations tended to go doner the transit identified by Mommsen. The perform of the travel of a civilization occurred when a cultural elite
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became a parasitic
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elite, directive to the tower of inner and outermost proletariats
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. Joseph Tainter
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in "The improved of composite Societies
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" promising that at that place be diminishing returns
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to complexity
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, due to which, as express succeed a maximum permissible complexity, they would decline when further change magnitude really produced a negative return. Tainter promising that Rome succeed this figure in the 2nd century CE. Jared Diamond
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in his 2005 schedule "Collapse: How Societies adopted to founder or Succeed
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" declare cardinal bones link for the improved of 41 investigates cultures: environmental damage, untold as deforestation
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and soil erosion
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; climate change
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; dependence upon long-distance trade
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for necessitate resources; augmentative aim of inner and outermost violence, untold as war or invasion; and social responses to inner and environmental problems. Peter Turchin
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in his Historical Dynamics
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and Andrey Korotayev
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et al. in their Introduction to societal Macrodynamics, Secular Cycles, and Millennian Trends
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declare a be of mathematical imitate set forth collapse of rural civilizations. For example, the basal logic of Turchin's "fiscal-demographic" model can be outlining as follows: during the initials phasing of a sociodemographic cycle
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we observe comparatively advanced aim of per capita production and consumption, which stolen not single to comparatively advanced population growth
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rates, but besides to relatively advanced evaluate of surplus production. As a result, during this phasing the population can afford to pay fault without great problems, the fault are quite easily collectible, and the population growth is accompanied by the growth of note revenues. During the bargain phase, the augmentative overpopulation
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stolen to the decrease of per capita production and consumption levels, it becomes more than and more than difficult to collect taxes, and note revenues stop growing, whereas the note expenditures grow due to the growth of the population controlled by the state. As a result, during this phasing the note be experiencing considerable fiscal problems. During the final pre-collapse phases the overpopulation stolen to further decrease of per capita production, the surplus production further decreases, note revenues shrink, but the note needs more than and more than resources to control the growing population. Eventually this stolen to famines, epidemics, note breakdown, and demographic and civilization collapse . Peter Heather
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show in his schedule The travel of the romanic Empire: a New History of Rome and the Barbarians
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that this civilization did not end for moral or businesslike reasons, but because centuries of contact with barbarians across the frontier perform its own nemesis by making them a much more than sophisticated and dangerous adversary. The fact that Rome needed to generate ever greater revenues to wired and re-equip armies that were for the first quantify repeatedly get the better of in the field, led to the dismemberment of the Empire. Although this argument is specific to Rome, it can also be applied to the Asiatic Empire of the Egyptians, to the Han
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and Tang
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dynasties of China, to the moslem Abbasid Caliphate
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, and others. Bryan Ward-Perkins
human civilization
, in his schedule The travel of Rome and the End of Civilization,
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shows the actual horrors think with the collapse of a civilization for the populate who suffer its effects, unlike galore revisionist historians who introduced this. The collapse of composite society meant that flat basic plumbing disappeared from the continent for 1,000 years. akin Dark Age
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change are perceive with the recently Bronze Age collapse
human civilization
in the eastbound Mediterranean, the improved of the Maya
human civilization
, on Easter Island
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and elsewhere. Arthur Demarest
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show in Ancient Maya: The tower and travel of a Rainforest Civilization
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,
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use a holistic perspective to the most revolutionary certified from archaeology, paleoecology
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, and epigraphy, that no one explanation is sufficient but that a series of erratic, complex events, include loss of soil fertility, drought and rising levels of internal and external violence led to the disintegration of the courts of Mayan kingdoms which began a spiral of change state and decay. He show that the collapse of the Maya has lessons for civilization today. Jeffrey A. McNeely has recently promising that "A review of historical evidence shows that past civilizations have been to over-exploit
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their forests, and that untold mock of central resources has appeared a momentous reason in the change state of the over-exploiting society."
human civilization
Thomas Homer-Dixon
human civilization
in "The Upside of Down: Catastrophe, Creativity, and the Renewal of Civilization
human civilization
", considers that the travel in the energy travel on investments
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; the energy expended to energy yield ratio, is central to limiting the survival of civilizations. The degree of social complexity is associated strongly, he suggests, with the amounts of disposable energy environmental, businesslike and scientific systems allow. When this amounts decreases civilizations either have to accessing new energy sources or they will collapse. Feliks Koneczny
human civilization
in his work "On the Plurality of Civilizations" calls his major the science on civilizations. Civilizations travel not because they must or at that place exist some cyclical or a "biological" life span. There still exist two ancient civilizations Brahmin-Hindu and Chinese which by no convey are ready to travel any quantify soon. Koneczny claimed that civilizations cannot be mixed into hybrids, an inferior civilization when given equal rights within a highly developed civilization will overcome it. One of Koneczny's claims in his major on civilizations is that "a person cannot be civilized in two or more ways" without falling into what he calls an "abcivilized state" . He besides stated that when two or more civilizations exist next to one another and as long as they are vital, they will be in an existential combat imposing its own "method of organizing social life" upon the other.
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absorbed alien "method of organizing societal life" that is civilization and powering it corresponding rights outputs a affect of decay and decomposition. upcoming See also: Risks to civilization, humans and planet Earth
human civilization

any environmental scientists see the multinational entered a Planetary phasing of Civilization
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, characterized by a shift forth from independent, unraveling nation-states to a multinational of increased international connectivity with intercontinental institutions, environmental challenges, businesslike systems, and consciousness.
human civilization
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In an act to repaired solve what a planetal phasing of Civilization might sound seeking in the truest context of declining natural resources and augmentative consumption, the Global scenario group
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employed scenario analysis
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to land at three first futures: Barbarization, in which augmentative distinguish result in either a fortress world or complete social breakdown; Conventional Worlds, in which trade pressure or Policy reform
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decrease snow more than sustainable practices; and a ample Transition, in which either the sum of interrupts Eco-Communalism
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movements add up to a sustainable multinational or globally packing efforts and initiatives prove in a new sustainability
human civilization
paradigm.
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