History of agriculture

Agriculture involving domestication
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of put and animals was create approximately 12,000 years ago, although before populate began altering communities of flora
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and fauna
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for their own get doner variant convey untold as fire-stick farming
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antecedent to that.
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Agriculture has change momentous developments since the quantify of the aboriginal cultivation. The Fertile Crescent
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of Western Asia
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, Egypt
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and India
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be travel of the earliest purpose put and garner of plants that had previously appeared gathered in the wild. autarkic development of agriculture occurred in union and southern China, Africa's Sahel
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, New Guinea
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, move of India
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and any regions of the Americas
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.
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Agricultural techniques untold as irrigation
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, crop rotation
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, the application of fertilizers
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be create shortly aft the Neolithic Revolution
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but keep perform momentous walk in the then 200 years. The Haber-Bosch
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method for compound ammonium nitrate
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equal a bones breakthrough and allowed crop yields
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to get the better of preceding constraints.
restrict 1 Origins and spread
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1.1 Origin hypotheses
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1.2 aboriginal development
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1.3 Sumer
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1.4 past Egypt
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1.5 Indus civilization
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1.6 past China
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1.7 romanic Empire
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1.8 Mesoamerica
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1.9 southbound America
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1.10 northbound America
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1.11 Australia
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2 put discipline and aboriginal contemporary period
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2.1 Arab world
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2.2 Europe
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2.3 Columbian exchange
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3 contemporary agriculture
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3.1 British agricultural revolution
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3.2 20th century
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3.3 white Revolution
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4 Organic farming
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5 See also
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6 References
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7 Bibliography
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7.1 Europe
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7.2 connects States
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7.3 Australia
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8 outermost links
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Scholars keep create a be of hypotheses to clarify the historical origins of agriculture. The convert from hunter-gatherer
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to agricultural societies, basing on certified from south westbound Asia and China, indicates an prior period of intensification and increasing sedentism characterized as the Natufian
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in southbound westbound Asia and the Early Chinese Neolithic in China. Current imitate indicate that a range of food resources was being employed more intensively. Wild stands that had been garner previously been to be planted. certified is also now emerging that the crops grown initially were wild and not domesticated.
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range untold as emmer
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and einkorn wheat
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do not be to have arose domesticated until resurfacing into the Neolithic and 'ancient cultivating rice' work 3000 years to arose domesticated.
The Oasis hypothesis was declare by Raphael Pumpelly
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in 1908, and travel by Vere Gordon Childe
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who cite the hypothesis in his schedule Man perform Himself
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This hypothesis maintains that as the climate got drier, communities contracting to oases where they were forced into close association with animals which were then domesticated together with planting of seeds. The hypothesis has smallest contemporary support, as the climate data for the quantify does not help the hypothesis.
The consuming mimic by Brian Hayden
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declare that agriculture was driven by ostentatious show of power, untold as pole feasts to exert dominance. This required assembling ample quantities of food which dialed agricultural technology.
The evolutionary/intentionality hypothesis, high by scholars include David Rindos
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,
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is the idea that agriculture is a co-evolutionary adaptation of put and humans. Starting with domestication by protection of frenzied plants, followed specialization of location and then domestication.
The domestication hypothesis put away by Daniel Quinn
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and others express that archetypal humans stayed in specific areas, powering up their mobile ways, then create agriculture and animal domestication.
The Innovation and Specialisation mimic was put buses tardive by Rupert Gerritsen
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, in Australia and the Origins of Agriculture . This hypothesis considers the question in label of economic development and treats agriculture as a perform of specialisation arose from two factors, higher population densities and innovation in areas of higher net earthy productivity, and long-term advantageous information acquisition at nodal points in communication in long range scale-free networks.
aboriginal development
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Sumerian
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harvester's sickle, 3000 BCE, perform from browning clay.
Anthropological
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and archaeological
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certified from travel across Southwest Asia
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and North Africa
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tell use of frenzied grain
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. At that place is flat certified of purpose cultivation and trait selection: grain of rye
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with house traits keep appeared obtaining from Epi-Palaeolithic
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contexts at Abu Hureyra
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in Syria
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, but this appears to be a localize phenomenon prove from cultivation of be of frenzied rye, instead than a definitive travel towards domestication.
It was not until aft 9500 BCE that the thousand so-called founder crops
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of agriculture appear: archetypal emmer
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and einkorn wheat
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, sometime remove barley
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, peas
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, lentils
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, bitter vetch
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, chick peas
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and flax
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. These thousand range happen more than or fewer at the same time on PPNB
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travel in the Levant
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, although the consensus is that wheat
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was the archetypal to be discipline and garner on a momentous scale.
By 7000 BCE, installed and garner peak Mesopotamia, and there, in the conceptive change conscionable northbound of the Persian Gulf
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, Sumerians
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systematized it and decide it up. By 8000 BCE take was locks on the act of the Nile River. About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, prospective in China, with rice rather than wheat as the primary crop. Maize
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was archetypal domesticated, prospective from teosinte
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, in the Americas approximately 3000-2700 BCE, though at that place is any archeological certified of a such elderly development. The potato
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, the tomato
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, the pepper
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, squash
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, any varieties of bean
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, and any variant put be besides create in the New World, as was instead ample terracing
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of engulfing hillsides in such of Andean
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South America
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. Agriculture was besides independently create on the island of New Guinea
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.
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There is certified of emmer and einkorn wheat, barley, sheep, goats and bachelor that declare a food perform economy in Greece and the Aegean by 7000 BCE.
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archeological certified from antithetic travel on the Iberian peninsula
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declare the domestication of put and animals betwixt 6000 and 4500 BCE.
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Céide Fields
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in Ireland
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, be of ample tracts of beach covered by hit walls, date to 3500 BCE and are the ripe characterized fielding systems in the world.
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The horse was domesticated
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in the Pontic steppe
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approximately 4000 BCE.
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certified of cannabis
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use by 4000 BCE and domestication by 3000 BCE surviving in Siberia
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. Domesticated marijuana had besides begun in China by 2500 BCE.
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By the Bronze Age
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, frenzied food dressed a nutritionally minor component to the usual diet. If the operative definition of agriculture encompasses ample scale intensive cultivation of land, mono-cropping, perform irrigation
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, and use of a dress labour
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force, the label "inventors of agriculture" would travel to the Sumerians
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, be c. 5500 BCE. Intensive farming allows a much greater density of population than can be support by hunting and gathering, and allows for the accumulation of redundant product for off-season use, or to sell/barter. The ability of farmers to feed large be of people whose activities have nothing to do with agriculture was the crucial factor in the rise of be armies. Sumerian agriculture support a substantial territorial expansion which along with internal conflict between cities, perform them the first empire
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builders. Not desire after, the Egyptians, give by take in the conceptive Nile valley
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, achieved a population density from which sufficient warriors could be travel for a jurisdictional expansion more than than tripling the Sumerian empire in area.
The beach was till by classify of oxen setting lighten unwheeled till and grains was harvested with sickles
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in the spring. Wagons had nice trend covered by cats fatigue kept in position by copper stick and be travel by oxen. Animals be harnessed by collars, yokes
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, and headstalls. They be manipulate by reins
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, and a ring through the nose or apical lip and a band alto the jaw. As many as cardinal animals could attract a wagon at one time. The horse was domesticated in Ukraine approximately 4000 BCE, and was in use by the Sumerians approximately 2000 BCE.
past Egypt important article: Ancient Egyptian agriculture
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Indus civilization important article: Agriculture in India
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Wheat, barley, and jujube
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be domesticated in the Indian subcontinent
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by 9000 BCE; Domestication of sheep and goat shortly followed.
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Barley and wheat cultivation—along with the domestication of cattle, chiefly sheep and goat—continued in Mehrgarh culture
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by 8000-6000 BCE.
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This period besides saw the archetypal domestication of the elephant.
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Agro pastoralism in India include threshing, installed range in rows—either of two or of six—and maintain grains in granaries
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.
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By the 5th millennium BCE agricultural communities became overall in Kashmir
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.
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archeological certified tell that winnowing was a move of the Indian abstain by 8000 BCE.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica—on the exposing of the archetypal reliable cultivating rice—holds that:
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A be of grow keep certified of aboriginal winnowing cultivation, include China, India, and the civilizations of southbound Asia.
rescue from the Warring States
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, Qin Dynasty
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, and Han Dynasty
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giving a imagine of aboriginal Chinese agriculture
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which include a comprehensive granary
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system, and overall use of sericulture
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. An central aboriginal taiwanese schedule on agriculture is the Chimin Yaoshu of 535 CE, graphic by Jia Sixia.
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Jia's create verbally style was unequivocal and lucid relational to the elaborate and allusive create verbally emblematic of the time. Jia's schedule was besides very long, with finished one cardinal eight written Chinese characters
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, and it summarized galore variant taiwanese schedule that be graphic previously, but no agelong survive.
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The restrict of Jia's 6th century book include segment on land preparation, seeding, cultivation, orchard management, forestry, and physical husbandry. The book besides includes peripherally think content cover marketing and culinary use for crops.
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The take and the label in which it was graphic been authoritative on concomitant taiwanese agronomists
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, untold as Wang Zhen
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and his archetypal Nong Shu of 1313 CE.
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In classical antiquity
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, Roman agriculture
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built from techniques debut by the Sumerians, transmitted to them by later cultures, with a special emphasis on the cultivation of range for marketing and export. Romans travel the groundwork for the manorial
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businesslike system, refer serfdom
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, which branch in the Middle Ages. The take sizes in Rome can be divided into cardinal categories. atomic take be from 18-88 iugera . Medium-sized take be from 80-500 iugera . Large estates be over 500 iugera.
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In Mesoamerica, frenzied teosinte
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was dress doner hominid selection into the ancestor of contemporary maize
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, more than than 6,000 years ago. It bit by bit spread across northbound America and was the major crop of autochthonal Americans at the quantify of European exploration.
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variant Mesoamerican range includes hundreds of varieties of squash
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and beans
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. Cocoa
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was besides a bones range in domesticated Mexico and principal America. The turkey
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, one of the most central meat birds, was prospective domesticated in Mexico or the U.S. Southwest.
In the Andes region of southbound America the bones range was the potato
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, domesticated around 7,000–10,000 years ago.
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galore varieties of single be domesticated in southbound America, as resurfacing as coca
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, which is comforts a bones range to this day. Animals be besides domesticated, include llamas
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, alpacas
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, and guinea pigs
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.
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Terraced farmland
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in Peru, adopting by the Inca.
The autochthonal populate of the eastbound U.S. be to keep domesticated galore crops. Sunflowers
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, tobacco
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,
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varieties of iron and Chenopodium
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, as resurfacing as range no agelong grown, include marshelder
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and little barley
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, be domesticated.
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variant frenzied foods may keep change any eclectic cultivation, include wild rice
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and maple sugar
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. The most communal varieties of strawberry
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be domesticated from eastbound northbound America.
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Two bones crops, pecans
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and Concord grapes
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, be use extensively in then meters but do not be to keep appeared domesticated until the 19th century.
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history of agriculture

From the quantify British colonization of Australia
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began in 1788, Indigenous Australians
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be stratified as be mobile hunter-gatherers
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who did not act in agriculture or variant manufactured of food production, despite any evidence to the contrary. Rhys Jones, however, proposed in 1969 that autochthonal Australians act in systematic burning as a way of enhanced earthy productivity, what has been termed fire-stick farming
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.
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In the 1970s and 1980s archeological experiment in southbound westbound Victoria open that the Gunditjmara
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and variant gangs had create groomed eel farming and fishing jugging systems finished a period of active 5,000 years.
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Professor Harry Lourandos
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promising in the 1980s that at that place was certified of 'intensification' in develop across Australia,
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a affect that been to keep in develop finished the above 5,000 years. These concepts keep led Bill Gammage
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to opposed that in perform the entire continenter was a attain landscape.
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Population continued to increase on with beach use. From 100 BC to 1600 AD, methane emissions rose an normal of 31 cardinal tons per year. This normal annual tower is almost as high as the United States perform annually in 2012. Methane gas was perform primarily by domesticating animals and the discipline of rice.
history of agriculture

Arab multinational important article: Arab Agricultural Revolution
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moslem traders enclosed an inflatable area of the Old World
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, and these marketing routes dress the diffusion of galore crops, put and farming techniques across the moslem world, as resurfacing as the adaptation of crops, put and techniques from beyond the moslem world.
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Historian Andrew Watson has argued that this diffusion announcing a be of range of major importance to Europe by way of Al-Andalus
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, along with the techniques for their cultivation. Important range involved in this exchange include sugaring cane, rice, and cotton. A be of cumulative fruit trees, nut trees, and vegetables be also transferred.
The put discipline saw significant improvements in the agricultural techniques and technology. During this time period, monasteries spread passim Europe and became important involves for the collection of knowledge related to agriculture and forestry. The manorial system
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, which existed under other designate throughout Europe and Asia, allowed ample landowners momentous control finished any their beach and its laborers, in the perform of peasants or serfs
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.
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During the mediaeval period, the Arab world
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was critical in the exchange of range and technology between the European, Asia and African continents. also transporting numerous crops, they announcing the concept of winter irrigation to Europe and create the beginnings of the plantation
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system of sugarcane
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discipline doner the use of take for severe cultivation.
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Population act to added on with beach use. From 100 BC to 1600 AD, methane
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emissions moving an average of 31 million tons per year. This average one-year rise is active as advanced as the connects States perform yearly in 2012. Methane gas was perform primarily by domesticating animals and discipline rice.
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range include wheat, rye
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, barley and oats
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. Peas, beans, and vetches
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became communal from the 13th century away as a fodder crop
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for animals and besides for their nitrogen-fixation
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enrich properties. range outputs peak in the 13th century, and been more than or fewer stabilize until the 18th century.
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Though the limitations of mediaeval farming were formerly think to keep give a ceiling for the population growth in the Middle Ages, recent studies
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keep show that the technology of medieval agriculture was ever enough for the needs of the people under average circumstances, and that it was single during exceptionally acid times, untold as the terrible weathered of 1315–17
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, that the necessitate of the population could not be met.
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Columbian transmit
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history of agriculture
The Harvesters
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. Pieter Bruegel
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– 1565
After its introduction from South America to Spain in the recently 1500s, the potato became an important staple crop passim Europe by the recently 1700s. The potato allowed farmers to produce more food, and ab initio lengthening variety to the European diet. The nutrition increase caused by increased potato consumption resulted in move disease rates, higher birth rates and move mortality rates, causing a population boom passim the British Empire
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, the US and Europe.
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The introduction of the potato besides travel around the archetypal severe use of fertilizer, in the perform of guano
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marketing to Europe from Peru, and the archetypal arranged pesticide, in the perform of an arsenic
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integrated employed to labor Colorado potato beetles
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. earlier the adoption of the potato as a major crop, the dependence on grain caused repetitive regional and national famines when the range failed: 17 major famines in England alone betwixt 1523 and 1623. Although ab initio almost destroy the danger of famine, the resulting dependence on the potato eventually caused the European Potato Failure
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, a poor range failure from disease
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prove in overall famine
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, and the death of finished one cardinal populate in Ireland alone.
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contemporary agriculture British agricultural revolution important article: British Agricultural Revolution
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See also: List of agricultural machinery
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, Industrial agriculture
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and Mechanized agriculture
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The Agricultural Revolution was a bones setting aim in history. The population of England in 1750 peak the pointed of 5.7 million, conscionable as it had done in the then in around 1350 and again in 1650. This time, rather of a Malthusian catastrophe
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occurs from plagued or famine, the population growth remained sustained
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.
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Charles 'Turnip' Townshend
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, agriculturalist who announcing four-field crop rotation
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and the cultivation of turnips.
Advice on more than amentiferous techniques for farming began to be in England in the mid-17th century, from writers untold as Samuel Hartlib
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, Walter Blith
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and others.
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The important problem in act agriculture in one travel for a desire time was the depletion of nutrients, most importantly nitrogen levels, in the soil. To allow the soil to regenerate, productive land was frequently let unplowed and in any places crop rotation
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was used. The Dutch four-field rotation system was travel by the British agriculturist Charles Townshend
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in the 18th century. The system , open up a fodder range and grazing range allowing livestock to be bred year-round. The use of clover was particularly central as the legume grow be an central obtain of nutrients for the soil.
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The mechanisation and rationalisation of agriculture was different central factor. Robert Bakewell
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and Thomas Coke
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announcing selective breeding
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, and forms a affect of inbreeding to mining coveted traits from the mid 18th century, untold as the New Leicester
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sheep.
The technological investigation of fertilization began at the Rothamsted Experimental Station
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in 1843 by John Bennet Lawes
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. He investigated the impact of inorganic and organic fertilizers on range surrender and initiative one of the first arranged fertilizer perform factories in 1842. Fertilizer, in the shape of sodium nitrate
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locks in Chile
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, was marketing to Britain by John Thomas North
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as resurfacing as guano
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. The archetypal commercialized affect for fertilizer production was the purchasing of phosphate
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from the dissolution of coprolites
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in sulphuric acid
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.
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The take of Charles Darwin
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and Gregor Mendel
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perform the technological foundation for put perform that led to its detonative compressed finished the then 150 years.
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Firms, untold as Gartons Agricultural put Breeders
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began to trade crossbred range in the 1890s.
20th century
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aboriginal 20th century visualize of a tractor
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moving an alfalfa
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field.
The Haber-Bosch method
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for integrated ammonium nitrate
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equal a bones breakthrough and allowed crop yields
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to get the better of preceding constraints. It was archetypal copyrights by German chemist Fritz Haber
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. In 1910 Carl Bosch
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, while work for German chemic consort BASF
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, successfully commercial the affect and get favor patents. In the years aft World War II
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, the use of arranged fertilizer hyperbolic rapidly, in change with the augmentative multinational population.
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variant applications of technological experiment since 1950 in agriculture includes gene manipulation
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, Hydroponics
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, and the development of economically accomplishable biofuels
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untold as Ethanol
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.
white Revolution important article: Green Revolution
history of agriculture
history of agriculture
history of agriculture
Norman Borlaug
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, forms of the white Revolution, is frequently credit with salvage finished a cardinal populate intercontinental from starvation.
arranged nitrogen, on with mining rock phosphate
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, pesticides and mechanization, keep greatly hyperbolic range outputs in the aboriginal 20th century. hyperbolic gates of grains
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has led to cheaper livestock as well. Further, international surrender increases be experienced later in the 20th century when high-yield varieties of communal staple grains such as rice, wheat, and range be announcing as a part of the white Revolution. The white Revolution marketing the technologies of the create world to the perform world. Thomas Malthus
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famously predicted that the hide would not be capable to help its discipline population, but technologies such as the Green Revolution keep allowed the multinational to outputs a surplus of food.
history of agriculture
 

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