Fungus

Dikarya
fungus

Ascomycota
fungus
Pezizomycotina
fungus
Saccharomycotina
fungus
Taphrinomycotina
fungus
Basidiomycota
fungus
Agaricomycotina
fungus
Pucciniomycotina
fungus
Ustilaginomycotina
fungus

A fungus
fungus
or funguses
fungus
) is any member of a ample groups of eukaryotic
fungus
organisms that encompasses microorganisms untold as yeasts
fungus
and molds
fungus
, as resurfacing as the more than acquainted mushrooms
fungus
. These organisms are classes as a kingdom
fungus
, Fungi, which is segment from plants
fungus
, animals
fungus
, protists
fungus
, and bacteria
fungus
. One bones difference is that fungous cells keep cell walls
fungus
that contain chitin
fungus
, dissimilar the cell protect of put and any protists, which contain cellulose
fungus
, and unlike the cell protect of bacteria. These and other differences display that the fungi form a only groups of related organisms, designate the Eumycota , that shares a common ancestor
fungus
. This fungous groups is antithetic from the structurally akin myxomycetes
fungus
and oomycetes
fungus
. The progresses of biology
fungus
dedicated to the major of fungi is characterized as mycology
fungus
. Mycology has frequently appeared think as a expanding of botany
fungus
, flat though it is a segment kingdom in biologic taxonomy
fungus
. heritable analyse keep show that fungi are more intimately think to animals than to plants.
The fungus kingdom includes an ample diversity of taxa
fungus
with change ecologies, life cycle
fungus
strategies, and morphologies
fungus
give from unicellular aquatic chytrids
fungus
to ample mushrooms. However, smallest is characterized of the align biodiversity
fungus
of Kingdom Fungi, which has appeared estimated at 1.5 cardinal to 5 cardinal species, with about 5% of these have appeared officially classified. Ever since the debut 18th and 19th century taxonomical
fungus
work of Carl Linnaeus
fungus
, Christian Hendrik Persoon
fungus
, and Elias Magnus Fries
fungus
, fungi keep appeared classified
fungus
match to their morphology or physiology
fungus
. moving in molecular genetics
fungus
keep open the way for DNA analysis
fungus
to be increase into taxonomy, which has sometimes dispute the historical groupings basing on morphology and variant traits. Phylogenetic
fungus
studies perform in the decide decade keep support price the classification of Kingdom Fungi, which is episodic into one subkingdom
fungus
, cardinal phyla
fungus
, and ten subphyla.
restrict 1 Etymology
fungus
2 Characteristics
fungus
3 Diversity
fungus
4 Mycology
fungus
4.1 History
fungus
5 Morphology
fungus
5.1 microscopical structures
fungus
5.2 circumpolar structures
fungus
6 Growth and physiology
fungus
7 Reproduction
fungus
7.1 agamic reproduction
fungus
7.2 intersexual reproduction
fungus
7.3 Spore dispersal
fungus
7.4 variant intersexual processes
fungus
8 Evolution
fungus
9 Taxonomy
fungus
9.1 taxonomical groups
fungus
9.2 fungus-like organisms
fungus
10 Ecology
fungus
10.1 Symbiosis
fungus
10.1.1 With plants
fungus
10.1.2 With algae and cyanobacteria
fungus
10.1.3 With insects
fungus
10.1.4 As pathogens and parasites
fungus
11 Mycotoxins
fungus
12 unhealthful mechanisms
fungus
13 hominid use
fungus
13.1 antimicrobial uses
fungus
13.1.1 contemporary chemotherapeutics
fungus
13.1.2 customary and folk medicine
fungus
13.2 branch foods
fungus
13.3 killable and cyanogenetic species
fungus
13.4 Pest control
fungus
13.5 Bioremediation
fungus
13.6 mimic organisms
fungus
13.7 Others
fungus
14 See also
fungus
15 References
fungus
15.1 repeat literature
fungus
16 outermost links
fungus

The English vent fungus is heterosexual adopting from the Latin
fungus
fungus , employed in the writings of Horace
fungus
and Pliny
fungus
.
fungus
This in trend is derives from the Greek
fungus
vent sphongos , which think of to the macroscopic
fungus
interlocked and morphology of adopted and molds;
fungus
the branch is besides employed in variant languages, untold as the German Schwamm and Schimmel .
fungus
The use of the vent mycology, which is derives from the grecian mykes and logos ,
fungus
to designate the technological major of fungi is think to keep arose in 1836 with English naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley
fungus
's publication The English Flora of Sir crowd Edward Smith, Vol. 5.
fungus

Characteristics
fungus
fungus
fungous Hyphae Cells 1- Hyphal shielded 2- Septum 3- Mitochondrion 4- Vacuole 5- Ergosterol
fungus
crystal 6- Ribosome 7- Nucleus 8- Endoplasmic reticulum 9- Lipid exemplified 10- Plasma membrane 11- Spitzenkörper
fungus
12- Golgi apparatus
overlap features:
With variant eukaryotes
fungus
: seeking variant eukaryotes, fungous cells contain membrane-bound
fungus
nuclei
fungus
with chromosomes
fungus
that contain DNA with noncoding regions
fungus
label introns
fungus
and code regions label exons
fungus
. Fungi keep membrane-bound cytoplasmatic organelles
fungus
untold as mitochondria
fungus
, sterol
fungus
-containing membranes, and ribosomes
fungus
of the 80S
fungus
type.
fungus
They keep a diagnostic crops of answerable carbohydrates and storage compounds, include sugar alcohols
fungus
, disaccharides
fungus
, , and polysaccharides
fungus
fungus
). With animals: Fungi missing chloroplasts
fungus
and are heterotrophic
fungus
organisms and so entailed moulding organic compounds
fungus
as energy sources.
fungus
With plants: Fungi keep a cell wall
fungus
and vacuoles
fungus
.
fungus
They simulated by any intersexual and agamic means, and seeking basal
fungus
put gangs outputs spores
fungus
. akin to mosses and algae, fungi typically keep haploid
fungus
nuclei.
fungus
With euglenoids
fungus
and bacteria: advanced fungi, euglenoids, and any bacteria outputs the amino acid
fungus
L-lysine in special biosynthesis
fungus
steps, label the α-aminoadipate pathway
fungus
.
fungus
fungus
The cells of most fungi branch as tubular, elongated, and thread-like interlocked and are label hyphae
fungus
, which may contain aggregate nuclei and added at their tips. all tip contains a set of happen vesicles
fungus
—cellular interlocked be of proteins
fungus
, lipids
fungus
, and variant organic molecules—called Spitzenkörper
fungus
.
fungus
any fungi and oomycetes
fungus
branch as thin hyphal cells.
fungus
In contrast, similar-looking organisms, untold as tenuous green algae
fungus
, branch by translated cell division indoors a arrange of cells.
fungus
In communal with any put and physical species, more than 60 fungous species
fungus
demonstrates the phenomenon of bioluminescence
fungus
.
fungus

Most fungi missing an businesslike system for long-distance buses of watering and nutrients, untold as the xylem
fungus
and phloem
fungus
in galore plants. To get the better of these limitations, any fungi, untold as Armillaria
fungus
, perform rhizomorphs
fungus
,
fungus
that approximate and make work akin to the roots
fungus
of plants. different diagnostic overlap with put is a biosynthetic pathway
fungus
for perform terpenes
fungus
that use mevalonic acid
fungus
and pyrophosphate
fungus
as chemical making blocks
fungus
.
fungus
However, put keep an cumulative terpene pathway in their chloroplasts, a organize fungi do not have.
fungus
Fungi outputs any secondary metabolites
fungus
that are akin or aforesaid in organize to those perform by plants.
fungus
galore of the put and fungous enzymes that forms these integrates differ from all variant in sequence
fungus
and variant characteristics, which tell segment origins and evolution of these enzymes in the fungi and plants.
fungus
fungus

Diversity
fungus
fungus
Bracket fungi
fungus
on precise log
approximately 100,000 species of fungi keep appeared officially described
fungus
by taxonomists
fungus
,
fungus
but the international biodiversity of the fungus kingdom is not to the full understood.
fungus
On the basis of observations of the ratio of the be of fungous species to the be of plant species in decide environments, the fungous kingdom has appeared reason to contain around 1.5 million species.
fungus
A revolutionary calculate declare at that place may be finished 5 cardinal species.
fungus
In mycology, species keep historically appeared identified by a variety of methods and concepts. Classification basing on morphological
fungus
characteristics, untold as the coat and moulding of spores or fruits structures, has traditionally dominate fungous taxonomy.
fungus
Species may besides be identified by their biochemical
fungus
and physiological
fungus
characteristics, untold as their ability to metabolise reliable biochemicals, or their reaction to chemical tests
fungus
. The biological species concept
fungus
distinguish species basing on their ability to mate
fungus
. The application of molecular
fungus
tools, untold as DNA sequencing
fungus
and phyletic analysis, to major diversity has greatly accelerate the resolution and lengthening robustness to calculate of genetic diversity
fungus
indoors antithetic taxonomical groups.
fungus

Mycology
The use of fungi by humans go out endorse to prehistory; Ötzi the Iceman
fungus
, a well-preserved mummy of a 5,300-year-old Neolithic
fungus
man open frostbitten in the Austrian Alps, travel two species of polypore
fungus
adopted that may keep appeared employed as tinder
fungus
, or for antimicrobial intend .
fungus
Ancient peoples keep used fungi as food sources–often unknowingly–for millennia, in the preparation of increase bread and fermented juices. any of the ripe graphic records contain write to the destruction of range that were probably perform by pathogenic fungi.
fungus

History
Most fungi branch as hyphae
fungus
, which are cylindrical, thread-like interlocked 2–10 µm
fungus
in diameter and up to any centimeters in length. Hyphae branch at their aligned ; new hyphae are typically formed by emergence of new aligned along endangered hyphae by a process called branching, or occasionally growing hyphal aligned fork, giving tower to two parallel-growing hyphae.
fungus
The combination of upper growth and branching/forking stolen to the development of a mycelium
fungus
, an bridging speaks of hyphae.
fungus
Hyphae can be either septate
fungus
or coenocytic
fungus
. septal hyphae are divided into compartments divide by cycle protect , with all compartment containing one or more than nuclei; coenocytic hyphae are not compartmentalized.
fungus
Septa keep pores
fungus
that allowance cytoplasm
fungus
, organelles
fungus
, and sometimes nuclei to cycle through; an example is the dolipore septum in fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota.
fungus
Coenocytic hyphae are in essence multinucleate
fungus
supercells.
fungus

Although fungi are opisthokonts
fungus
—a classify of evolutionarily think organisms loosely legendary by a only endorse flagellum
fungus
—all phyla minds for the chytrids
fungus
keep losing their endorse flagella.
fungus
Fungi are other among the eukaryotes in have a cell shielded that, in addition to glucans
fungus
and variant emblematic components, besides contains the biopolymer
fungus
chitin.
fungus

circumpolar interlocked
fungus
fungus
Armillaria solidipes
fungus

The apothecium
fungus
—a dress organize central in sexual reproduction
fungus
in the ascomycetes—is a cup-shaped fruits exemplified that respects the hymenium
fungus
, a shape of create from raw material containing the spore-bearing cells.
fungus
The fruits embody of the basidiomycetes and any ascomycetes can sometimes branch dead large, and galore are resurfacing characterized as mushrooms
fungus
.
Growth and physiology
fungus
Mold
fungus
growth cover a change integrity peach
fungus
. The enclose be work around 12 hours unconnected finished a period of six days.
The autoloading forces dedicated by the appressorium is perform from physiological affect that added intracellular turgor
fungus
by perform osmolytes
fungus
untold as glycerol
fungus
.
fungus
Adaptations untold as these are match by hydrolytic enzymes
fungus
secretes into the environment to stomach ample organic molecules—such as polysaccharides
fungus
, proteins
fungus
, and lipids
fungus
—into atomic molecules that may sometime be absorbing as nutrients.
fungus
fungus
fungus
The ample majority of tenuous fungi branch in a be fashion—i.e., by extension into one direction—by elongation at the tip of the hypha.
fungus
variant manufactured of fungous growth includes additive extension as in the inspect of any endophytic
fungus
fungi,
fungus
or growth by volume expansion during the development of pick stipes
fungus
and variant ample organs.
fungus
Growth of fungi as multicellular structures
fungus
be of somatic
fungus
and fruitful cells—a have independently create by mental act in animals and plants
fungus
—has any functions, include the development of fruits embody for dissemination of intersexual spores and biofilms
fungus
for substrate colonization and intercellular communication
fungus
.
fungus

Fungal reproduction is complex, reflected the differences in lifestyles and heritable makeup indoors this antithetic kingdom of organisms.
fungus
It is reason that a ordinal of all fungi reproduce use more than than one method of propagation; for example, reproduction may happen in two well-differentiated re-create indoors the life cycle
fungus
of a species, the teleomorph
fungus
and the anamorph
fungus
.
fungus
Environmental conditions trigger genetically price developmental states that lead to the creation of dress interlocked for intersexual or agamic reproduction. These interlocked aid reproduction by efficiently dispersing spores or spore-containing propagules
fungus
.
agamic reproduction
intersexual reproduction with meiosis
fungus
existing in all fungous phyla .
fungus
It differing in many aspects from sexual reproduction in animals or plants. Differences besides existing betwixt fungal groups and can be employed to discriminate species by morphological differences in sexual interlocked and reproductive strategies.
fungus
fungus
united research betwixt fungous disadvantages may distinguish species on the basis of biologic species concepts.
fungus
The bones fungal groupings keep ab initio appeared display basing on the morphology of their intersexual structures and spores; for example, the spore-containing structures, asci
fungus
and basidia
fungus
, can be employed in the identification of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, respectively. any species may allowance united single betwixt individuals of different mating type
fungus
, whereas others can united and sexually simulated with any variant idiosyncratic or itself. Species of the former mating system
fungus
are label heterothallic
fungus
, and of the last mentioned homothallic
fungus
.
fungus

In ascomycetes, dikaryotic hyphae of the hymenium
fungus
perform a diagnostic entice at the hyphal septum. During cell division
fungus
, formation of the entice ensures becoming distribution of the freshly episodic nuclei into the upper and basic hyphal compartments. An ascus is then formed, in which karyogamy
fungus
occurs. Asci are insert in an ascocarp
fungus
, or fruits body. Karyogamy in the asci is followed instantly by meiosis and the production of ascospores
fungus
. aft dispersal, the ascospores may grow and perform a new haploidic mycelium.
fungus

In glomeromycetes , haploidic hyphae of two individuals fuse, forms a gametangium
fungus
, a dress cell organize that change state a conceptive gamete
fungus
-producing cell. The gametangium perform into a zygospore
fungus
, a thick-walled spore perform by the yankee of gametes. When the zygospore germinates, it improved meiosis
fungus
, forms new haploidic hyphae, which may sometime perform agamic sporangiospores
fungus
. These sporangiospores allow the fungus to quickly disbanding and branch into new genetically aforesaid haploid fungous mycelia.
fungus

Spore dispersal
dress autoloading and physiological mechanisms, as resurfacing as spore resurfacing interlocked , change businesslike spore ejection.
fungus
For example, the organize of the spore-bearing cells
fungus
in any ascomycete species is untold that the buildup of substances
fungus
improved cell volume and liquid match dress the detonative deactivate of spores into the air.
fungus
The forcible deactivate of single spores termed ballistospores involves formation of a small plummeted of water , which upon contact with the spore leads to its dynamic sacrifice with an initials acceleration of more than than 10,000 g
fungus
;
fungus
the net prove is that the spore is banished 0.01–0.02 cm, enough have for it to travel doner the gills or reasons into the air below.
fungus
variant fungi, seeking the puffballs
fungus
, believe on secondary mechanisms for spore release, untold as outermost autoloading forces. The bird's rooms fungi
fungus
use the compel of moving watering setting to free the spores from cup-shaped fruits bodies.
fungus
different strategy is perceive in the stinkhorns
fungus
, a groups of fungi with liveborn colors and putrid odor that carts insects to disbanding their spores.
fungus

variant intersexual affect
In distinguish to plants
fungus
and animals
fungus
, the aboriginal fossil logs of the fungi is meager. budgets that probably contribute to the under-representation of fungous species among fossils includes the nature of fungous fruiting bodies
fungus
, which are soft, fleshy, and easily degradable tissues and the microscopic dimensions of most fungous structures, which hence are not readily evident. fungous fossils are difficult to distinguish from those of other microbes, and are most easily distinguished when they resemble extant
fungus
fungi.
fungus
frequently obtaining from a permineralized
fungus
put or physical host, these consume are typically investigates by building thin-section preparations that can be investigates with light microscopy
fungus
or transmission electron microscopy
fungus
.
fungus
Researchers major compression fossils
fungus
by change state the hint matrix with harsh and sometime use lighten or scanning electron microscopy
fungus
to tests well details.
fungus

It is evaluate that the fungi colonised the beach during the Cambrian
fungus
, desire earlier beach plants.
fungus
fermented hyphae and spores obtaining from the Ordovician
fungus
of Wisconsin approximate modern-day Glomerales
fungus
, and be at a quantify when the beach flora probably be of single non-vascular bryophyte
fungus
-like plants.
fungus
Prototaxites
fungus
, which was prospective a fungus or lichen, would keep appeared the tall organism of the recently Silurian
fungus
. fungous fossils do not arose communal and undisputed until the aboriginal Devonian
fungus
, when they happen copiously in the Rhynie chert
fungus
, largely as Zygomycota
fungus
and Chytridiomycota
fungus
.
fungus
fungus
fungus
At around this aforesaid time, around 400 Ma, the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota diverged,
fungus
and all contemporary classes
fungus
of fungi be show by the recently Carboniferous
fungus
" title="Pennsylvanian ">Pennsylvanian
fungus
, 318.1–299 Ma).
fungus

any quantify aft the Permian–Triassic extinction event
fungus
, a fungal spikes formed, suggesting that fungi be the ascendant life perform at this time, equal active 100% of the approachable fossil record
fungus
for this period.
fungus
However, the relational reconciling of fungous spores relational to spores perform by algal
fungus
species is harder to assess,
fungus
the spikes did not be worldwide,
fungus
fungus
and in galore travel it did not travel on the Permian–Triassic boundary.
fungus

Taxonomy Unikonta
fungus
  
Animalia
fungus

Nucleariids
fungus

Microsporidia
fungus

Neocallimastigomycota
fungus

Zoopagomycotina
fungus

Entomophthoromycotina
fungus

Glomeromycota
fungus

  Dikarya
fungus
  
Basidiomycota
fungus

There is no unparalleled generally evaluate system at the higher taxonomic aim and at that place are frequent name changes at every level, from species upwards. Efforts among researchers are now underway to based and support usage of a unified and more than unanimous nomenclature
fungus
.
fungus
fungus
fungous species can also keep aggregate technological designate be on their life cycle and mode of reproduction. Web travel such as Index Fungorum
fungus
and ITIS
fungus
inventory truest designate of fungous species .
The bones phyla
fungus
of fungi keep appeared classes principally on the basis of characteristics of their intersexual reproductive
fungus
structures. Currently, cardinal phyla are proposed: Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota.
fungus

fungus
fungus
Arbuscular mycorrhiza
fungus
perceive alto microscope. Flax
fungus
branch cortical cells containing happen arbuscules.
The Chytridiomycota
fungus
are ordinarily characterized as chytrids. These fungi are strewn worldwide. Chytrids outputs zoospores
fungus
that are competent of about movement doner aqueous stage with a only flagellum
fungus
, directive aboriginal taxonomists
fungus
to group them as protists
fungus
. Molecular phylogenies
fungus
, reason from rRNA
fungus
sequenced in ribosomes
fungus
, declare that the Chytrids are a basal
fungus
groups variant from the variant fungous phyla, be of cardinal bones clades
fungus
with connotative certified for paraphyly
fungus
or perhaps polyphyly
fungus
.
fungus

The Neocallimastigomycota
fungus
be before move in the phylum Chytridomycota. Members of this atomic phylum are anaerobic organisms
fungus
, extant in the digestive system of ample anthophagous mammals and in variant terrestrial and aquatic environments repaired in cellulose .
fungus
They missing mitochondria
fungus
but contain hydrogenosomes
fungus
of mitochondrial origin. As the think chrytrids, neocallimastigomycetes perform zoospores that are posteriorly uniflagellate or polyflagellate.
fungus

The Ascomycota
fungus
, ordinarily characterized as sac fungi or ascomycetes, graphs the ample taxonomical groups indoors the Eumycota.
fungus
These fungi perform meiotic spores label ascospores
fungus
, which are covered in a circumstantial sac-like organize label an ascus
fungus
. This phylum encompasses morels
fungus
, a few mushrooms
fungus
and truffles
fungus
, unicellular yeasts
fungus
" title="Candida " class="mw-redirect">Candida
fungus
), and galore tenuous fungi extant as saprotrophs, parasites, and mutualistic symbionts. egregious and central genera of tenuous ascomycetes includes Aspergillus
fungus
, Penicillium
fungus
, Fusarium
fungus
, and Claviceps
fungus
. galore ascomycete species keep only been observed undergoing asexual reproduction , but analysis of molecular data has frequently been capable to identify their closest teleomorphs
fungus
in the Ascomycota.
fungus
Because the products of meiosis are retain indoors the sac-like ascus, ascomycetes keep appeared used for explain principles of genetics and heredity .
fungus

Because of similarities in morphology and lifestyle, the slime molds
fungus
, watering moulding and hyphochytrids
fungus
be erst classes in the kingdom Fungi, in gangs seeking Mastigomycotina
fungus
, Gymnomycota
fungus
and Phycomycetes
fungus
. The muddy moulding be investigates besides as protozoans
fungus
, directive to a ambiregnal
fungus
, simulated taxonomy.
The Eccrinales
fungus
and Amoebidiales
fungus
are opisthokont
fungus
protists
fungus
, antecedently think to be zygomycete fungi.
The nucleariids
fungus
, protists presently group in the Choanozoa
fungus
, may be the consecutive sister groups to the eumycete clade, and as untold could be include in an grow fungous kingdom.
fungus

Ecology
fungus
fungus
A pin shape segment a leaks
galore fungi keep central symbiotic
fungus
relationships with organisms from most if not all Kingdoms
fungus
.
fungus
fungus
fungus
These interactions can be mutualistic
fungus
or oppose in nature, or in the inspect of commensal
fungus
fungi are of no obvious get or detriment to the host.
fungus
fungus
fungus

With put
The mycorrhizal symbiosis is ancient, go out to at least 400 cardinal years ago.
fungus
It frequently change magnitude the plant's uptake of inorganic compounds, untold as nitrate
fungus
and phosphate
fungus
from improved have low concentrations of these key put nutrients.
fungus
fungus
The fungous gates may besides indirect plant-to-plant exchange of carbohydrates and variant nutrients. Such mycorrhizal communities are label "common mycorrhizal networks".
fungus
A circumstantial inspect of mycorrhiza is myco-heterotrophy, whereby the put parasitizes the fungus, purchasing all of its nutrients from its fungous symbiont.
fungus
any fungous species been the create from raw material within roots, stems, and leaves, in which inspect they are label endophytes.
fungus
akin to mycorrhiza, endophytic colonization by fungi may benefit both symbionts; for example, endophytes of grasses impart to their hosts increased resistance to herbivores and variant environmental stresses and earn food and stable from the plant in return.
fungus

With algae and cyanobacteria
fungus
fungus
The lichen Lobaria pulmonaria
fungus
, a symbiosis of fungal, algal
fungus
, and cyanobacterial
fungus
species
galore insects besides act in mutualistic relationships
fungus
with fungi. any gangs of ants cultivating fungi in the ordering Agaricales
fungus
as their capital food source, while ambrosia beetles
fungus
cultivating antithetic species of fungi in the disclose of steer that they infest.
fungus
Likewise, females of any wood wasp
fungus
species injected their pelt unneurotic with spores of the wood-rotting fungus Amylostereum areolatum into the sapwood
fungus
of pine
fungus
trees; the growth of the fungus give perfect nutritionary teach for the development of the wasp larvae.
fungus
Termites
fungus
on the African savannah
fungus
are besides characterized to cultivating fungi,
fungus
and yeasts of the genera Candida
fungus
and Lachancea been the gut
fungus
of a widest crops of insects, include neuropterans
fungus
, beetles
fungus
, and cockroaches
fungus
; it is not characterized whether these fungi get their hosts.
fungus
The larvae of galore families of fungicolous flies, especially those indoors the superfamily Sciaroidea
fungus
untold as the Mycetophilidae
fungus
and any Keroplatidae
fungus
range on fungous fruits embody and barren mycorrhizae
fungus
.
fungus

As pathogens and parasites
fungus
fungus
The put pathogen Aecidium magellanicum perform calafate rust
fungus
, perceive show on a Berberis
fungus
shrub in Chile.
any fungi can perform earnest diseases in humans, any of which may be deadly if untreated. These includes aspergilloses
fungus
, candidoses
fungus
, coccidioidomycosis
fungus
, cryptococcosis
fungus
, histoplasmosis
fungus
, mycetomas
fungus
, and paracoccidioidomycosis
fungus
. Furthermore, persons with immuno-deficiencies
fungus
are especially allergic to disease by genera untold as Aspergillus
fungus
, Candida
fungus
, Cryptoccocus
fungus
,
fungus
fungus
fungus
Histoplasma
fungus
,
fungus
and Pneumocystis
fungus
.
fungus
variant fungi can circumvented eyes, nails, hair, and particularly skin, the so-called dermatophytic
fungus
and keratinophilic fungi, and perform topical infections untold as ringworm
fungus
and athlete's foot
fungus
.
fungus
fungous spores are besides a perform of allergies
fungus
, and fungi from other taxonomical gangs can evoke susceptible reactions.
fungus

Mycotoxins
fungus
fungus
Ergotamine
fungus
, a bones mycotoxin perform by Claviceps
fungus
species, which if smoke can perform gangrene
fungus
, convulsions, and hallucinations
fungus

Ustilago maydis is a unhealthful plant fungus that perform smut disease in maize and teosinte. Plants keep evolved efficient defense systems against unhealthful microbes. A abstain defense reaction after pathogen attack is the oxidative burst that includes the production of reactive oxygen species at the site of the attempted invasion. As a pathogen, U. maydis can act to untold an oxidative burst by an oxidative stress response, regulated by the gene yap1. This response protecting U. maydis from the host attack, and is necessary for the pathogen’s virulence.
fungus
Furthermore, U. maydis has a well-established recombinational DNA sole system that acts during mitosis and meiosis.
fungus
Recombinational sole during mitosis and meiosis may support the pathogen in survives DNA dress arose from the host plant’s aerobiotic antiaircraft response to infection.
fungus

The hominid use of fungi for food preparation or preservation and variant intend is ample and has a desire history. Mushroom farming
fungus
and mushroom gathering
fungus
are ample industries in galore countries. The major of the historical use and sociological compressed of fungi is characterized as ethnomycology
fungus
. Because of the capacity of this groups to outputs an ample crops of natural products
fungus
with antimicrobial
fungus
or variant biologic activities, galore species keep desire appeared used or are be create for industrial production of antibiotics
fungus
, vitamins, and anti-cancer
fungus
and cholesterol-lowering
fungus
drugs. More than recently, methods keep appeared create for genetic engineering
fungus
of fungi,
fungus
dress metabolic engineering
fungus
of fungous species. For example, heritable modification of yeast species
fungus
—which are easily to branch at fasting evaluate in ample fermentation vessels—has open up ways of pharmaceutical
fungus
production that are potentially more than businesslike than production by the archetypal obtain organisms.
fungus

antimicrobial use contemporary chemotherapeutics
reliable adopted bask usage as therapeutics in folk medicines
fungus
, untold as Traditional taiwanese medicine
fungus
. worth antimicrobial adopted with a well-documented history of use includes Agaricus subrufescens
fungus
,
fungus
fungus
Ganoderma lucidum
fungus
,
fungus
and Ophiocordyceps sinensis
fungus
.
fungus
experiment has distinguished compounds perform by these and variant fungi that have regulatory biologic perform against viruses
fungus
fungus
fungus
and cancer cells
fungus
.
fungus
fungus
special metabolites, untold as polysaccharide-K
fungus
, ergotamine
fungus
, and β-lactam antibiotics
fungus
, are routinely employed in objective medicine. The shiitake
fungus
adopted is a obtain of lentinan
fungus
, a objective medicate accept for use in cancer treatments in any countries, include Japan
fungus
.
fungus
fungus
In Europe
fungus
and Japan
fungus
, polysaccharide-K
fungus
, a chemic derives from Trametes versicolor
fungus
, is an accept adjuvant
fungus
for cancer therapy.
fungus

branch foods
Edible mushrooms
fungus
are well-known examples of fungi. galore are commercially raised, but others essential be garner from the wild. Agaricus bisporus
fungus
, sold as button adopted when small or Portobello adopted when larger, is a commonly eaten species, used in salads, soups, and galore other dishes. galore asiatic fungi are commercially grown and have hyperbolic in popularity in the West. They are frequently available caller in grocery stores
fungus
and markets, include enclosed adopted , gather adopted , shiitakes , and enokitake
fungus
.
fungus

reliable copied of cheeses require inoculation of milk curds with fungous species that express a unparalleled season and texture to the cheese. Examples include the blue
fungus
improved in cheese untold as Stilton
fungus
or Roquefort
fungus
, which are perform by inoculation with Penicillium roqueforti
fungus
.
fungus
Molds used in cheeses production are non-toxic and are hence fail-safe for hominid consumption; however, mycotoxins may accumulate because of growth of variant fungi during cheeses change or storage.
fungus

fungus
fungus
Stilton cheese
fungus
stain with Penicillium roqueforti
fungus

As it is harder to accurately identify a fail-safe adopted without becoming lectures and knowledge, it is frequently hash out to assume that a wild adopted is cyanogenetic and not to consume it.
fungus
fungus

Pest tamper
fungus
fungus
Grasshoppers single by Beauveria bassiana
fungus

reliable fungi, in specific "white rot" fungi, can degraded insecticides
fungus
, herbicides
fungus
, pentachlorophenol
fungus
, creosote
fungus
, coal tars
fungus
, and heavier give and trend them into carbon dioxide
fungus
, water, and basal elements.
fungus
Fungi keep appeared show to biomineralize
fungus
uranium
fungus
oxides
fungus
, suggested they may keep application in the bioremediation of radioactively muddy sites.
fungus
fungus
fungus

mimic organisms
Fungi are employed extensively to outputs industrial chemicals seeking citric
fungus
, gluconic
fungus
, lactic
fungus
, and malic
fungus
acids,
fungus
and industrial enzymes, untold as lipases
fungus
employed in biological detergents
fungus
,
fungus
cellulases
fungus
employed in building cellulosic ethanol
fungus
fungus
and stonewashed jeans
fungus
,
fungus
and amylases
fungus
,
fungus
invertases
fungus
, proteases
fungus
and xylanases
fungus
.
fungus
any species, most notably Psilocybin mushrooms
fungus
, are smoke for their psychedelic
fungus
properties, any recreationally
fungus
and religiously.
See besides
fungus
Fungi portal
fungus
Conservation of fungi
fungus
Fungal infection in animals
fungus
Fungal infection in plants
fungus
Marine fungi
fungus
MycoBank
fungus
write ^
fungus
Moore RT. . "Taxonomic proposals for the classification of oversea yeasts and variant yeast-like fungi include the smuts". Botanica Marina 23: 361–373.  ^
fungus
The classification system show show is basing on the 2007 phyletic major by Hibbett et al. ^
fungus
fungus
i
fungus
/
fungus
ˈ
fungus
f
fungus
ʌ
fungus
n
fungus
fungus
fungus
/
fungus
or
fungus
i
fungus
/
fungus
ˈ
fungus
f
fungus
ʌ
fungus
ŋ
fungus
ɡ
fungus
fungus
/
fungus
^
fungus
"fungus"
fungus
. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 26 February 2011.  ^
fungus
"LIAS Glossary"
fungus
. Retrieved 14 aristocratic 2013.  ^
fungus
Simpson DP. . Cassell's Latin Dictionary . London, UK: Cassell Ltd. p. 883. ISBN
fungus
 0-304-52257-0
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Ainsworth, p. 2. ^
fungus
Mitzka W., ed. . Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.  ^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., p. 1. ^
fungus
Bruns T. . "Evolutionary biology: a kingdom revised". Nature 443 : 758–761. Bibcode
fungus
:2006Natur.443..758B
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1038/443758a
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17051197
fungus
^
fungus
Baldauf SL, Palmer JD. . "Animals and fungi are all other's closer relatives: consonant certified from aggregate proteins"
fungus
. Proceedings of the federal Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 90 : 11558–11562. doi
fungus
:10.1073/pnas.90.24.11558
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 48023
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 8265589
fungus
^
fungus
Deacon, p. 4. ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Deacon, pp. 128–29. ^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., pp. 28–33. ^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., pp. 31–32. ^
fungus
Shoji JY, Arioka M, Kitamoto K. . "Possible involvement of pleiomorphic vacuolar communicate in nutritious pass in tenuous fungi". Autophagy 2 : 226–227. doi
fungus
:10.4161/auto.2695
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16874107
fungus
^
fungus
Deacon, p. 58. ^
fungus
Zabriskie TM, Jackson MD. . "Lysine biosynthesis and metabolism in fungi". earthy Product inform 17 : 85–97. doi
fungus
:10.1039/a801345d
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 10714900
fungus
^
fungus
Xu H, Andi B, Qian J, westbound AH, browning PF. . "The α-aminoadipate pathway for lysine biosynthesis in fungi". multicellular Biochemistry and Biophysics 46 : 43–64. doi
fungus
:10.1385/CBB:46:1:43
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16943623
fungus
^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., pp. 27–28. ^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., p. 685. ^
fungus
Desjardin DE, Oliveira AG, Stevani CV. . "Fungi bioluminescence revisited". Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 7 : 170–182. doi
fungus
:10.1039/b713328f
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18264584
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., p. 30. ^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., pp. 32–33. ^
fungus
Bowman SM, enfranchised SJ. . "The organize and synthesis of the fungous cell wall". BioEssays 28 : 799–808. doi
fungus
:10.1002/bies.20441
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16927300
fungus
^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., p. 33. ^
fungus
Mihail JD, Bruhn JN. . "Foraging behaviour of Armillaria rhizomorph systems". Mycological experiment 109 : 1195–1207. doi
fungus
:10.1017/S0953756205003606
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16279413
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
c
fungus
d
fungus
Keller NP, Turner G, Bennett JW. . "Fungal auxiliary metabolism–from biochemistry to genomics". Nature investigates Microbiology 3 : 937–947. doi
fungus
:10.1038/nrmicro1286
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16322742
fungus
^
fungus
Wu S, Schalk M, Clark A, Miles RB, enclosed R, Chappell J. . "Redirection of cytosolic or plastidic isoprenoid precursors elevates terpene production in plants". Nature Biotechnology 24 : 1441–1447. doi
fungus
:10.1038/nbt1251
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17057703
fungus
^
fungus
Tudzynski B. . "Gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi: genes, enzymes, evolution, and compressed on biotechnology". use Microbiology and Biotechnology 66 : 597–611. doi
fungus
:10.1007/s00253-004-1805-1
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 15578178
fungus
^
fungus
Vaupotic T, Veranic P, Jenoe P, Plemenitas A. . "Mitochondrial mediation of environmental osmolytes discrimination during osmoadaptation in the highly halotolerant black yeast Hortaea werneckii". fungous Genetics and Biology 45 : 994–1007. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.fgb.2008.01.006
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18343697
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Dadachova E, Bryan RA, Huang X, Moadel T, Schweitzer AD, Aisen P, Nosanchuk JD, Casadevall A. . "Ionizing radiation dress the electronic properties of melanin and enhanced the growth of convert fungi"
fungus
. PLoS ONE 2 : e457. Bibcode
fungus
:2007PLoSO...2..457D
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1371/journal.pone.0000457
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 1866175
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17520016
fungus
^
fungus
Raghukumar C, Raghukumar S. . "Barotolerance of fungi isolates from deep-sea localize of the Indian Ocean". Aquatic microbic Ecology 15 : 153–163. doi
fungus
:10.3354/ame015153
fungus
^
fungus
Sancho LG, de la Torre R, Horneck G, Ascaso C, de Los Rios A, Pintado A, Wierzchos J, Schuster M. . "Lichens survive in space: ensue from the 2005 LICHENS experiment". Astrobiology 7 : 443–454. Bibcode
fungus
:2007AsBio...7..443S
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1089/ast.2006.0046
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17630840
fungus
^
fungus
Brem FM, Lips KR. . "Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection imitate among Panamanian amphibian species, habitats and elevations during epidemic and enzootic stages". Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 81 : 189–202. doi
fungus
:10.3354/dao01960
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18998584
fungus
^
fungus
Le Calvez T, Burgaud G, Mahé S, Barbier G, Vandenkoornhuyse P. . "Fungal diversity in dense sea hydrothermal ecosystems"
fungus
. use and Environmental Microbiology 75 : 6415–6421. doi
fungus
:10.1128/AEM.00653-09
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 2765129
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 19633124
fungus
^
fungus
This estimation is determined by have the species count for each phyla, based on determine obtaining from the 10th edition of the Dictionary of the Fungi : Ascomycota, 64163 species ; Basidiomycota, 31515 ; Blastocladiomycota, 179 ; Chytridiomycota, 706 ; Glomeromycota, 169 ; Microsporidia, >1300 ; Neocallimastigomycota, 20 . ^
fungus
Mueller GM, Schmit JP. . "Fungal biodiversity: what do we know? What can we predict?". Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 1–5. doi
fungus
:10.1007/s10531-006-9117-7
fungus
^
fungus
Hawksworth DL. . "The fungous brands of biodiversity: magnitude, significance, and conservation". Mycological experiment 95 : 641–655. doi
fungus
:10.1016/S0953-756280810-1
fungus
^
fungus
Blackwell M. . "The Fungi: 1, 2, 3 ... 5.1 cardinal species?"
fungus
. American Journal of Botany
fungus
98 : 426–438. doi
fungus
:10.3732/ajb.1000298
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 21613136
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Kirk et al., p. 489. ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
c
fungus
d
fungus
e
fungus
f
fungus
g
fungus
h
fungus
i
fungus
Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, Blackwell M, single PF, Eriksson OE, et al. . "A advanced pointed phyletic classification of the Fungi"
fungus
. Mycological experiment 111 : 509–547. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17572334
fungus
^
fungus
match to one 2001 estimate, some 10,000 fungal diseases are known. touches C. . "Infection strategies of put parasitical fungi". In Cooke BM, Jones DG, Kaye B. The Epidemiology of put Diseases. Berlin, Germany: Springer. p. 117. ISBN
fungus
 1-4020-4580-8
fungus
^
fungus
Peintner U, Pöder R, Pümpel T. . "The Iceman's fungi". Mycological experiment 102 : 1153–1162. doi
fungus
:10.1017/S0953756298006546
fungus
^
fungus
Ainsworth, p. 1. ^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., pp. 1–2. ^
fungus
Ainsworth, p. 18. ^
fungus
Hawksworth DL. . "Pandora's Mycological Box: Molecular sequenced vs. morphology in understand fungous relationships and biodiversity". Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia 23 : 127–133. doi
fungus
:10.1016/S1130-140670031-6
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17196017
fungus
^
fungus
Harris SD. . "Branching of fungous hyphae: regulation, mechanisms and comparison with variant branch systems"
fungus
. Mycologia 100 : 823–832. doi
fungus
:10.3852/08-177
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 19202837
fungus
^
fungus
Deacon, p. 51. ^
fungus
Deacon, p. 57. ^
fungus
Chang S-T, Miles PG. . Mushrooms: Cultivation, nutritionary Value, antimicrobial perform and Environmental Impact. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN
fungus
 0-8493-1043-1
fungus
^
fungus
Parniske M. . "Arbuscular mycorrhiza: the mothers of put branch endosymbioses". Nature investigates Microbiology 6 : 763–775. doi
fungus
:10.1038/nrmicro1987
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18794914
fungus
^
fungus
Steenkamp ET, Wright J, Baldauf SL. . "The protistan origins of animals and fungi"
fungus
. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 : 93–106. doi
fungus
:10.1093/molbev/msj011
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16151185
fungus
^
fungus
Stevens DA, Ichinomiya M, Koshi Y, Horiuchi H. . "Escape of Candida from caspofungin inhibition at concentrations preparatory the MIC accomplish by increased cell shielded chitin; certified for β-1,6-glucan synthesis inhibition by caspofungin"
fungus
. therapeutic Agents and Chemotherapy 50 : 3160–3161. doi
fungus
:10.1128/AAC.00563-06
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 1563524
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16940118
fungus
^
fungus
Hanson, pp. 127–41. ^
fungus
Ferguson BA, Dreisbach TA, installed CG, Filip GM, Schmitt CL. . "Coarse-scale population organize of unhealthful Armillaria species in a mixed-conifer forest in the northern Mountains of northeast Oregon". Canadian Journal of put Research
fungus
33 : 612–623. doi
fungus
:10.1139/x03-065
fungus
^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., pp. 204–205. ^
fungus
Moss ST. . The Biology of oversea Fungi. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
fungus
. p. 76. ISBN
fungus
 0-521-30899-2
fungus
^
fungus
Peñalva MA, Arst HN. . "Regulation of gene expression by close pH in tenuous fungi and yeasts"
fungus
. Microbiology and Molecular Biology investigates 66 : 426–446. doi
fungus
:10.1128/MMBR.66.3.426-446.2002
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 120796
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 12208998
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Howard RJ, Ferrari MA, rear DH, Money NP. . "Penetration of ambitious substrates by a fungus dedicated ample turgor pressures"
fungus
. Proceedings of the federal Academy of Sciences USA 88 : 11281–11284. Bibcode
fungus
:1991PNAS...8811281H
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1073/pnas.88.24.11281
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 53118
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 1837147
fungus
^
fungus
Money NP. . "Mechanics of invasive fungal growth and the significance of turgor in put infection". Molecular Genetics of Host-Specific Toxins in Plant Disease: Proceedings of the 3rd Tottori world Symposium on Host-Specific Toxins, Daisen, Tottori, Japan, aristocratic 24–29, 1997. Netherlands: Kluwer scholarly Publishers. pp. 261–271. ISBN
fungus
 0-7923-4981-4
fungus
^
fungus
Wang ZY, Jenkinson JM, Holcombe LJ, Soanes DM, Veneault-Fourrey C, Bhambra GK, Talbot NJ. . "The molecular biology of appressorium turgor generation by the winnowing fire fungus Magnaporthe grisea". Biochemical Society Transactions 33 : 384–388. doi
fungus
:10.1042/BST0330384
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 15787612
fungus
^
fungus
Pereira JL, Noronha EF, Miller RN, Franco OL. . "Novel insights in the use of hydrolytic enzymes secreted by fungi with biotechnological potential". receive in use Microbiology 44 : 573–581. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02151.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17576216
fungus
^
fungus
Schaller M, Borelli C, Korting HC, Hube B. . "Hydrolytic enzymes as virulence budgets of Candida albicans". Mycoses 48 : 365–377. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1439-0507.2005.01165.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16262871
fungus
^
fungus
Farrar JF. . "Carbohydrate metabolism in biotrophic put pathogens". Microbiological Sciences 2 : 314–317. PMID
fungus
 3939987
fungus
^
fungus
Fischer R, Zekert N, Takeshita N. . "Polarized growth in fungi—interplay betwixt the cytoskeleton, positional markers and membrane domains". Molecular Microbiology 68 : 813–826. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06193.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18399939
fungus
^
fungus
Christensen MJ, Bennett RJ, Ansari HA, Koga H, Johnson RD, Bryan GT, Simpson WR, Koolaard JP, Nickless EM, Voisey CR. . "Epichloë endophytes grow by additional hyphal extension in lengthen eagle leaves". Fungal Genetics and Biology
fungus
45 : 84–93. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.fgb.2007.07.013
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17919950
fungus
^
fungus
Money NP. . "Mushroom originate in cells". Bioessays
fungus
24 : 949–952. doi
fungus
:10.1002/bies.10160
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 12325127
fungus
^
fungus
Willensdorfer M. . "On the evolution of distinguish multicellularity". Evolution
fungus
63 : 306–323. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00541.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 19154376
fungus
^
fungus
Daniels KJ, Srikantha T, Lockhart SR, Pujol C, Soll DR. . "Opaque cells covenant green cells to perform biofilms in Candida albicans"
fungus
. EMBO Journal
fungus
25 : 2240–2252. doi
fungus
:10.1038/sj.emboj.7601099
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 1462973
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16628217
fungus
^
fungus
Marzluf GA. . "Regulation of nitrogen metabolism and gene expression in fungi"
fungus
. Microbiological investigates 45 : 437–461. PMC
fungus
 281519
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 6117784
fungus
^
fungus
Heynes MJ. . "Regulatory travel of the amdS gene of Aspergillus nidulans". Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 65 : 179–182. doi
fungus
:10.1007/BF00871944
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 7847883
fungus
^
fungus
Dadachova E, Casadevall A. . "Ionizing radiation: how fungi cope, adapt, and mining with the encouraging of melanin"
fungus
. Current Opinion in Microbiology
fungus
11 : 525–531. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.mib.2008.09.013
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 2677413
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18848901
fungus
^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., pp. 48–56. ^
fungus
Kirk et al., p. 633. ^
fungus
Heitman J. . "Sexual reproduction and the evolution of microbic pathogens". Current Biology
fungus
16 : R711–R725. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.cub.2006.07.064
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16950098
fungus
^
fungus
Alcamo IE, Pommerville J. . Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology. Boston, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett. p. 590. ISBN
fungus
 0-7637-0067-3
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Redecker D, Raab P. . "Phylogeny of the Glomeromycota : revolutionary developments and new gene markers"
fungus
. Mycologia 98 : 885–895. doi
fungus
:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.885
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17486965
fungus
^
fungus
Guarro J, Gené J, Stchigel AM. . "Developments in fungous taxonomy"
fungus
. objective Microbiology investigates 12 : 454–500. PMC
fungus
 100249
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 10398676
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Taylor JW, Jacobson DJ, Kroken S, Kasuga T, Geiser DM, Hibbett DS, Fisher MC. . "Phylogenetic species recognition and species concepts in fungi". fungous Genetics and Biology 31 : 21–32. doi
fungus
:10.1006/fgbi.2000.1228
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 11118132
fungus
^
fungus
Metzenberg RL, supply NL. . "Mating write and united strategies in Neurospora". BioEssays 12 : 53–59. doi
fungus
:10.1002/bies.950120202
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 2140508
fungus
^
fungus
Jennings and Lysek, pp. 107–114. ^
fungus
Deacon, p. 31. ^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., pp. 492–493. ^
fungus
Jennings and Lysek, p. 142. ^
fungus
Deacon, pp. 21–24. ^
fungus
Linder MB, Szilvay GR, Nakari-Setälä T, Penttilä ME. . "Hydrophobins: the protein-amphiphiles of tenuous fungi". FEMS Microbiology investigates 29 : 877–896. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.femsre.2005.01.004
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16219510
fungus
^
fungus
trails F. . "Fungal cannons: detonative spore deactivate in the Ascomycota". FEMS Microbiology receive 276 : 12–18. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2007.00900.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17784861
fungus
^
fungus
Pringle A, Patek SN, Fischer M, Stolze J, Money NP. . "The equal open of a ballistospore"
fungus
. Mycologia
fungus
97 : 866–871. doi
fungus
:10.3852/mycologia.97.4.866
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16457355
fungus
^
fungus
Kirk et al., p. 495. ^
fungus
Brodie HJ. . The Bird's rooms Fungi. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press. p. 80. ISBN
fungus
 0-8020-5307-6
fungus
^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., p. 545. ^
fungus
Jennings and Lysek, pp. 114–115. ^
fungus
Furlaneto MC, Pizzirani-Kleiner AA. . "Intraspecific hybridisation of Trichoderma pseudokoningii by anastomosis and by protoplast fusion". FEMS Microbiology receive 69 : 191–196. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1992.tb05150.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 1537549
fungus
^
fungus
Schardl CL, Cowardly KD. . "Interspecific hybridization in plant-associated fungi and oomycetes: a review". Molecular Ecology 12 : 2861–2873. doi
fungus
:10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01965.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 14629368
fungus
^
fungus
Donoghue MJ, Cracraft J. . united the crab of Life. Oxford , UK: Oxford University Press. p. 187. ISBN
fungus
 0-19-517234-5
fungus
^
fungus
Taylor and Taylor, p. 19. ^
fungus
Taylor and Taylor, pp. 7–12. ^
fungus
Butterfield NJ. . "Probable Early fungi". Paleobiology 31 : 165–182. doi
fungus
:10.1666/0094-8373031<0165:PPF>2.0.CO;2
fungus
^
fungus
Lucking R, Huhndorf S, Pfister D, Plata ER, Lumbsch H. . "Fungi create by mental act correctly on track". Mycologia 101 : 810–822. doi
fungus
:10.3852/09-016
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 19927746
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
c
fungus
crowd TY, Kauff F, Schoch CL, Matheny PB, Hofstetter V, Cox CJ, et al. . "Reconstructing the aboriginal evolution of Fungi use a six-gene phylogeny". Nature 443 : 818–822. Bibcode
fungus
:2006Natur.443..818J
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1038/nature05110
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17051209
fungus
^
fungus
Taylor and Taylor, pp. 84–94 and 106–107. ^
fungus
Schoch CL, Sung GH, López-Giráldez F, Townsend JP, Miadlikowska J, Hofstetter V, et al. . "The Ascomycota tree of life: A phylum-wide phylogeny clarify the origin and evolution of important fruitful and ecological traits". Systematic Biology 58 : 224–239. doi
fungus
:10.1093/sysbio/syp020
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 20525580
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Brundrett MC. . "Coevolution of grow and mycorrhizas of beach plants". New Phytologist 154 : 275–304. doi
fungus
:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2002.00397.x
fungus
^
fungus
Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. . "Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician". Science 289 : 1920–1921. Bibcode
fungus
:2000Sci...289.1920R
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 10988069
fungus
^
fungus
Taylor TN, Taylor EL. . "The distribution and interactions of any Paleozoic fungi". analyze of Palaeobotany and Palynology 95 : 83–94. doi
fungus
:10.1016/S0034-666700029-2
fungus
^
fungus
Dotzler N, Walker C, Krings M, Hass H, Kerp H, Taylor TN, Agerer R. . "Acaulosporoid glomeromycotan spores with a germination shield from the 400-million-year-old Rhynie chert". Mycological develop 8 : 9–18. doi
fungus
:10.1007/s11557-008-0573-1
fungus
^
fungus
Taylor JW, Berbee ML. . "Dating divergences in the fungous crab of Life: analyze and new analyses"
fungus
. Mycologia 98 : 838–849. doi
fungus
:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.838
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17486961
fungus
^
fungus
Blackwell M, Vilgalys R, crowd TY, Taylor JW. . "Fungi. Eumycota: mushrooms, sac fungi, yeast, molds, rusts, smuts, etc."
fungus
. crab of Life Web Project. Retrieved 25 April 2009.  ^
fungus
Yuan X, Xiao S, Taylor TN. . "Lichen-like symbiosis 600 cardinal years ago". Science 308 : 1017–1020. Bibcode
fungus
:2005Sci...308.1017Y
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1126/science.1111347
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 15890881
fungus
^
fungus
Karatygin IV, Snigirevskaya NS, Vikulin SV. . "The most past terrene lichen Winfrenatia reticulata: A new determine and new interpretation". palaeontological Journal 43 : 107–114. doi
fungus
:10.1134/S0031030109010110
fungus
^
fungus
Taylor TN, Hass H, Kerp H, Krings M, Hanlin RT. . "Perithecial Ascomycetes from the 400 cardinal year old Rhynie chert: an example of genetic polymorphism"
fungus
. Mycologia 97 : 269–285. doi
fungus
:10.3852/mycologia.97.1.269
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16389979
fungus
^
fungus
Dennis RL. . "A put Pennsylvanian basidiomycete mycelium with locks connections"
fungus
. Mycologia 62 : 578–584. doi
fungus
:10.2307/3757529
fungus
. JSTOR
fungus
 3757529
fungus
^
fungus
Hibbett DS, Grimaldi D, Donoghue MJ. . "Cretaceous adopted in amber". Nature 377 : 487. Bibcode
fungus
:1995Natur.377..487H
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1038/377487a0
fungus
^
fungus
Hibbett DS, Grimaldi D, Donoghue MJ. . "Fossil mushrooms from Miocene and Cretaceous ambers and the evolution of homobasidiomycetes". American Journal of Botany 84 : 981–991. doi
fungus
:10.2307/2446289
fungus
. JSTOR
fungus
 2446289
fungus
^
fungus
Eshet Y, Rampino MR, Visscher H. . "Fungal event and palynological logs of ecologic crisis and recovery across the Permian-Triassic boundary". Geology 23 : 967–970. Bibcode
fungus
:1995Geo....23..967E
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1130/0091-7613023<0967:FEAPRO>2.3.CO;2
fungus
^
fungus
further CB, Stephenson MH, Marshall C, Logan GA, Greenwood PF. . "A revision of Reduviasporonites Wilson 1962: description, illustration, comparison and biologic affinities". Palynology 26 : 35–58. doi
fungus
:10.2113/0260035
fungus
^
fungus
López-Gómez J, Taylor EL. . "Permian-Triassic convert in Spain: a multidisciplinary approach". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229 : 1–2. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.06.028
fungus
^
fungus
Looy CV, Twitchett RJ, Dilcher DL, Van Konijnenburg-van Cittert JHA, Visscher H. . "Life in the end-Permian precise zone"
fungus
. Proceedings of the federal Academy of Sciences USA 162 : 7879–7883. Bibcode
fungus
:2001PNAS...98.7879L
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1073/pnas.131218098
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 35436
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 11427710
fungus
. See visualize 2  ^
fungus
wall PD, Botha J, Buick R, De Kock MO, Erwin DH, Garrison GH, Kirschvink JL, Smith R. . "Abrupt and gradual extinction among recently Permian land vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, southbound Africa". Science 307 : 709–714. Bibcode
fungus
:2005Sci...307..709W
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1126/science.1107068
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 15661973
fungus
^
fungus
Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge MA, Espelund M, Orr R, Ruden T, Jakobsen KS, Cavalier-Smith T. . "Multigene phylogeny of choanozoa and the origin of animals"
fungus
. PLoS ONE 3 : e2098. Bibcode
fungus
:2008PLoSO...3.2098S
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 2346548
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18461162
fungus
^
fungus
See Palaeos Fungi: Fungi
fungus
for an introduction to fungous taxonomy, include revolutionary controversies. archive
fungus
^
fungus
Celio GJ, Padamsee M, Dentinger BT, Bauer R, McLaughlin DJ. . "Assembling the fungous crab of Life: forms the functional and biochemical database". Mycologia 98 : 850–859. doi
fungus
:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.850
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17486962
fungus
^
fungus
Gill EE, fasting NM. . "Assessing the microsporidia-fungi relationship: have phyletic analysis of thousand genes". Gene 375: 103–109. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.gene.2006.02.023
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16626896
fungus
^
fungus
Liu YJ, Hodson MC, Hall BD. . "Loss of the flagellum happened single formerly in the fungous lineage: phyletic organize of kingdom Fungi inferred from RNA polymerase II subunit genes"
fungus
. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6: 74. doi
fungus
:10.1186/1471-2148-6-74
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 1599754
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17010206
fungus
^
fungus
crowd TY, Letcher PM, Longcore JE, Mozley-Standridge SE, buses D, Powell MJ, Griffith GW, Vilgalys R. . "A molecular phylogeny of the flog fungi and description of a new phylum "
fungus
. Mycologia
fungus
98 : 860–871. doi
fungus
:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.860
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17486963
fungus
^
fungus
Lockhart R, Van fences MI, Beadle IR, Humphreys P, McCarthy AJ. . "Molecular biologic detection of anaerobiotic gut fungi from landfill sites"
fungus
. use and Environmental Microbiology 72 : 5659–61. doi
fungus
:10.1128/AEM.01057-06
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Remy W, Taylor TN, Hass H, Kerp H. . "4-hundred cardinal year old vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae"
fungus
. Proceedings of the federal Academy of Sciences USA 91 : 11841–11843. Bibcode
fungus
:1994PNAS...9111841R
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1073/pnas.91.25.11841
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 45331
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 11607500
fungus
^
fungus
Schüssler A, Schwarzott D, Walker C. . "A new fungous phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution". Mycological experiment 105 : 1413–1421. doi
fungus
:10.1017/S0953756201005196
fungus
^
fungus
Alexopoulos et al., p. 145. ^
fungus
For an example, see Samuels GJ. . "Trichoderma: systematics, the intersexual state, and ecology". Phytopathology 96 : 195–206. doi
fungus
:10.1094/PHYTO-96-0195
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18943925
fungus
^
fungus
Radford A, Parish JH. . "The genome and genes of Neurospora crassa". fungous Genetics and Biology: FG & B 21 : 258–266. doi
fungus
:10.1006/fgbi.1997.0979
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 9290240
fungus
^
fungus
Valverde ME, Paredes-López O, Pataky JK, Guevara-Lara F. . "Huitlacoche as a food source—biology, composition, and production". captious investigates in Food Science and Nutrition 35 : 191–229. doi
fungus
:10.1080/10408399509527699
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 7632354
fungus
^
fungus
Zisova LG. . "Malassezia species and seborrheic dermatitis". Folia Medica 51 : 23–33. PMID
fungus
 19437895
fungus
^
fungus
optimize JR. . "Cryptococcus neoformans: the yeast that like it hot". FEMS Yeast experiment 6 : 463–468. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1567-1364.2006.00051.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16696642
fungus
^
fungus
Blackwell M, Spatafora JW. . "Fungi and their allies". In charging GF, Mueller GM, further MS. Biodiversity of Fungi: indexed and monitors Methods. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 18–20. ISBN
fungus
 0-12-509551-1
fungus
^
fungus
Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge MA, Espelund M, Orr R, Ruden T, Jakobsen KS, Cavalier-Smith T. . "Multigene phylogeny of Choanozoa and the origin of animals"
fungus
. PLoS ONE 3 : e2098. Bibcode
fungus
:2008PLoSO...3.2098S
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 2346548
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18461162
fungus
^
fungus
Gadd GM. . "Geomycology: biogeochemical transformations of rocks, minerals, copper and radionuclides by fungi, bioweathering and bioremediation". Mycological experiment 111 : 3–49. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.mycres.2006.12.001
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17307120
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Lindahl BD, Ihrmark K, Boberg J, Trumbore SE, Högberg P, Stenlid J, Finlay RD. . "Spatial separation of been decomposition and mycorrhizal nitrogen uptake in a boreal forest". New Phytologist 173 : 611–620. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01936.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17244056
fungus
^
fungus
Barea JM, Pozo MJ, Azcón R, Azcón-Aguilar C. . "Microbial co-operation in the rhizosphere". Journal of Experimental Botany
fungus
56 : 1761–1778. doi
fungus
:10.1093/jxb/eri197
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 15911555
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Aanen DK. . "As you reap, so shall you sow: united of garner and inform improved the mutualism betwixt termites and fungi"
fungus
. Biology Letters
fungus
2 : 209–212. doi
fungus
:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0424
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 1618886
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17148364
fungus
^
fungus
Nikoh N, Fukatsu T. . "Interkingdom hosts setting underground: phylogenetic analysis of entomoparasitic fungi of the genus Cordyceps". Molecular Biology and Evolution 17 : 629–638. doi
fungus
:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026341
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 10742053
fungus
^
fungus
Perotto S, Bonfante P. . "Bacterial associations with mycorrhizal fungi: closing and dense friends in the rhizosphere". trend in Microbiology 5 : 496–501. doi
fungus
:10.1016/S0966-842X01154-2
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 9447662
fungus
^
fungus
Arnold AE, Mejía LC, Kyllo D, Rojas EI, Maynard Z, Robbins N, Herre EA. . "Fungal endophytes contents pathogen dress in a tropic tree"
fungus
. Proceedings of the federal Academy of Sciences USA 100 : 15649–15654. Bibcode
fungus
:2003PNAS..10015649A
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1073/pnas.2533483100
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 307622
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 14671327
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Paszkowski U. . "Mutualism and parasitism: the yin and yang of put symbioses". truest Opinion in put Biology 9 : 364–370. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.pbi.2006.05.008
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16713732
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Hube B. . "From commensal to pathogen: stage- and tissue-specific gene expression of Candida albicans". truest Opinion in Microbiology 7 : 336–341. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.mib.2004.06.003
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 15288621
fungus
^
fungus
Bonfante P. . "Plants, mycorrhizal fungi and endobacteria: a dialog among cells and genomes". The biologic Bulletin
fungus
204 : 215–220. doi
fungus
:10.2307/1543562
fungus
. JSTOR
fungus
 1543562
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 12700157
fungus
^
fungus
van der Heijden MG, Streitwolf-Engel R, Riedl R, Siegrist S, Neudecker A, Ineichen K, Boller T, Wiemken A, Sanders IR. . "The mycorrhizal contribution to put productivity, put nutrition and soil structure in experimental grassland". New Phytologist 172 : 739–752. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01862.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17096799
fungus
^
fungus
Selosse MA, Richard F, He X, Simard SW. . "Mycorrhizal networks: des liaisons dangereuses?". trend in Ecology and Evolution 21 : 621–628. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.tree.2006.07.003
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16843567
fungus
^
fungus
Merckx V, Bidartondo MI, Hynson NA. . "Myco-heterotrophy: when fungi hosts plants"
fungus
. Annals of Botany 104 : 1255–1261. doi
fungus
:10.1093/aob/mcp235
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 2778383
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 19767309
fungus
^
fungus
Schulz B, Boyle C. . "The endophytic continuum". Mycological experiment 109 : 661–686. doi
fungus
:10.1017/S095375620500273X
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16080390
fungus
^
fungus
Clay K, Schardl C. . "Evolutionary origins and ecologic consequences of endophyte symbiosis with grasses". American Naturalist
fungus
160 : S99–S127. doi
fungus
:10.1086/342161
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18707456
fungus
^
fungus
Brodo IM, Sharnoff SD. . Lichens of northbound America. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN
fungus
 0-300-08249-5
fungus
^
fungus
grab PH, Turn RF, Eichhorn, SE. . "14—Fungi". Biology of put . W. H. Freeman. p. 290. ISBN
fungus
 978-0-7167-1007-3
fungus
^
fungus
Deacon, p. 267. ^
fungus
Purvis W. . Lichens. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution iron in association with the earthy History Museum, London. pp. 49–75. ISBN
fungus
 1-56098-879-7
fungus
^
fungus
Kirk et al., p. 378. ^
fungus
Deacon, pp. 267–276. ^
fungus
Douglas AE. . "Mycetocyte symbiosis in insects". biologic investigates of the Cambridge philosophic Society 64 : 409–434. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1989.tb00682.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 2696562
fungus
^
fungus
Deacon, p. 277. ^
fungus
Nguyen NH, Suh SO, Blackwell M. . "Five archetypal Candida species in insect-associated yeast clades isolates from Neuroptera and variant insects"
fungus
. Mycologia 99 : 842–858. doi
fungus
:10.3852/mycologia.99.6.842
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18333508
fungus
^
fungus
Chandler PJ. . A Dipterist's Handbook . U.K.: The nonprofessional Entomologists' Society. pp. 1–525.  ^
fungus
Talbot NJ. . "On the trails of a cereal killer: analyse the biology of Magnaporthe grisea". One-year investigates in Microbiology 57: 177–202. doi
fungus
:10.1146/annurev.micro.57.030502.090957
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 14527276
fungus
^
fungus
Paoletti M, Buck KW, Brasier CM. . "Selective acquisition of novel united write and vegetive incompatibility genes via interspecies gene exchange in the globally circumvented eukaryote Ophiostoma novo-ulmi". Molecular Ecology 15 : 249–262. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02728.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16367844
fungus
^
fungus
Gryzenhout M, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. . "New taxonomical concepts for the central put pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica and related fungi". FEMS Microbiology receive 258 : 161–172. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00170.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16640568
fungus
^
fungus
Yang Y, Yang E, An Z, Liu X. . "Evolution of nematode-trapping cells of objectionable fungi of the Orbiliaceae basing on certified from rRNA-encoding DNA and multiprotein sequences"
fungus
. Proceedings of the federal Academy of Sciences USA 104 : 8379–8384. Bibcode
fungus
:2007PNAS..104.8379Y
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1073/pnas.0702770104
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 1895958
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17494736
fungus
^
fungus
Nielsen K, Heitman J. . "Sex and virulence of hominid unhealthful fungi". moving in Genetics. moving in Genetics 57: 143–173. doi
fungus
:10.1016/S0065-266057004-X
fungus
. ISBN
fungus
 978-0-12-017657-1
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17352904
fungus
^
fungus
Brakhage AA. . "Systemic fungous infections perform by Aspergillus species: epidemiology, infection affect and virulence determinants". truest medicate level 6 : 875–886. doi
fungus
:10.2174/138945005774912717
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16375671
fungus
^
fungus
Kauffman CA. . "Histoplasmosis: a objective and laboratory update"
fungus
. objective Microbiology investigates 20 : 115–132. doi
fungus
:10.1128/CMR.00027-06
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 1797635
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17223625
fungus
^
fungus
change MT, Smulian AG, Slaven BE, Sesterhenn T, Arnold J, Staben C, Porollo A, Adamczak R, Meller J. . "Transcriptome of Pneumocystis carinii during denounce infection: carbohydrate metabolism and the concept of a congenial parasite"
fungus
. PLoS ONE 2 : e423. Bibcode
fungus
:2007PLoSO...2..423C
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1371/journal.pone.0000423
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 1855432
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17487271
fungus
^
fungus
browning GC, Zumla AI
fungus
. . Manson's tropic Diseases: adept Consult. Edinburgh, Scotland: Saunders Ltd. p. 347. ISBN
fungus
 1-4160-4470-1
fungus
^
fungus
Simon-Nobbe B, Denk U, Pöll V, Rid R, Breitenbach M. . "The spectrum of fungous allergy". world collect of Allergy and Immunology 145 : 58–86. doi
fungus
:10.1159/000107578
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17709917
fungus
^
fungus
Demain AL, Fang A. . "The earthy work of auxiliary metabolites". moving in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. moving in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology 69: 1–39. doi
fungus
:10.1007/3-540-44964-7_1
fungus
. ISBN
fungus
 978-3-540-67793-2
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 11036689
fungus
^
fungus
Rohlfs M, Albert M, Keller NP, Kempken F. . "Secondary chemicals wall moulding from fungivory"
fungus
. Biology receive 3 : 523–525. doi
fungus
:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0338
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 2391202
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17686752
fungus
^
fungus
Schardl CL, Panaccione DG, Tudzynski P. . "Ergot alkaloids—biology and molecular biology". The Alkaloids. Chemistry and Biology. The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology 63: 45–86. doi
fungus
:10.1016/S1099-483163002-2
fungus
. ISBN
fungus
 978-0-12-469563-4
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17133714
fungus
^
fungus
van Egmond HP, Schothorst RC, Jonker MA. . "Regulations think to mycotoxins in food: perspectives in a international and European context". analytic and Bioanalytical Chemistry 389 : 147–157. doi
fungus
:10.1007/s00216-007-1317-9
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17508207
fungus
^
fungus
Molina L, Kahmann R. . "An Ustilago maydis gene refer in H2O2 detoxification is necessitate for virulence"
fungus
. put Cell 19 : 2293–2309. doi
fungus
:10.1105/tpc.107.052332
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 1955693
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17616735
fungus
^
fungus
Kojic M, Zhou Q, Lisby M, Holloman WK. . "Rec2 interplay with any Brh2 and Rad51 match recombinational sole in Ustilago maydis"
fungus
. Molecular and multicellular Biology 26 : 678–688. doi
fungus
:10.1128/MCB.26.2.678-688.2006
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 1346908
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16382157
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Michod RE, Bernstein H, Nedelcu AM. . "Adaptive find of sex in microbic pathogens"
fungus
. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 8 : 267–285. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.01.002
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18295550
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
c
fungus
Fan W, Kraus PR, Boily MJ, Heitman J. . "Cryptococcus neoformans gene expression during murine macrophage infection"
fungus
. eucaryotic Cell 4 : 1420–1433. doi
fungus
:10.1128/EC.4.8.1420-1433.2005
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 1214536
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16087747
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Lin X, extract CM, Heitman J. . "Sexual reproduction betwixt gates of the aforesaid united write in Cryptococcus neoformans". Nature 434 : 1017–1021. Bibcode
fungus
:2005Natur.434.1017L
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1038/nature03448
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 15846346
fungus
^
fungus
Fincham JRS. . "Transformation in fungi"
fungus
. Microbiological investigates 53 : 148–170. PMC
fungus
 372721
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 2651864
fungus
^
fungus
Hawkins KM, Smolke CD. . "Production of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae"
fungus
. Nature chemic Biology 4 : 564–573. doi
fungus
:10.1038/nchembio.105
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 2830865
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18690217
fungus
^
fungus
Huang B, Guo J, Yi B, Yu X, Sun L, Chen W. . "Heterologous production of auxiliary metabolites as pharmaceuticals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Biotechnology receive 30 : 1121–1137. doi
fungus
:10.1007/s10529-008-9663-z
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18512022
fungus
^
fungus
Brakhage AA, Spröte P, Al-Abdallah Q, Gehrke A, Plattner H, Tüncher A. . "Regulation of penicillin biosynthesis in tenuous fungi". moving in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology 88: 45–90. doi
fungus
:10.1007/b99257
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 15719552
fungus
^
fungus
Pan A, Lorenzotti S, Zoncada A. . "Registered and investigational medicate for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection". revolutionary procure on Anti-infective medicate Discovery 3 : 10–33. doi
fungus
:10.2174/157489108783413173
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18221183
fungus
^
fungus
Fajardo A, Martínez JL. . "Antibiotics as communicate that triggered special bacterial responses". truest Opinion in Microbiology 11 : 161–167. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.mib.2008.02.006
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18373943
fungus
^
fungus
Loo DS. . "Systemic fungicidal agents: an change of open and new therapies". moving in Dermatology 22: 101–124. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.yadr.2006.07.001
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17249298
fungus
^
fungus
Manzoni M, Rollini M. . "Biosynthesis and biotechnological production of statins by tenuous fungi and application of these cholesterol-lowering drugs". use Microbiology and Biotechnology 58 : 555–564. doi
fungus
:10.1007/s00253-002-0932-9
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 11956737
fungus
.  ^ a
fungus
b
fungus
Hetland G, Johnson E, Lyberg T, Bernardshaw S, Tryggestad AM, Grinde B. . "Effects of the antimicrobial mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on immunity, infection and cancer". norse Journal of Immunology 68 : 363–370. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1365-3083.2008.02156.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18782264
fungus
^
fungus
Firenzuoli F, Gori L, Lombardo G. . "The antimicrobial adopted Agaricus blazei Murrill: analyze of literature and pharmaco-toxicological problems"
fungus
. Evidence-based contradictory and secondary Medicine: eCAM 5 : 3–15. doi
fungus
:10.1093/ecam/nem007
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 2249742
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18317543
fungus
^
fungus
Paterson RR. . "Ganoderma–a antimicrobial fungous biofactory". Phytochemistry 67 : 1985–2001. doi
fungus
:10.1002/chin.200650268
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16905165
fungus
^
fungus
Paterson RR. . "Cordyceps: a customary taiwanese treat and different fungous antimicrobial biofactory?". Phytochemistry 69 : 1469–1495. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.01.027
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18343466
fungus
^
fungus
el-Mekkawy S, Meselhy MR, Nakamura N, Tezuka Y, Hattori M, Kakiuchi N, Shimotohno K, Kawahata T, Otake T. . "Anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-1-protease substances from Ganoderma lucidum". Phytochemistry 49 : 1651–1657. doi
fungus
:10.1016/S0031-942200254-4
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 9862140
fungus
^
fungus
El consuming RS, El Halawany AM, Ma CM, Hattori M. . "Anti-HIV-1 protease activity of lanostane triterpenes from the vietnamese mushroom Ganoderma colossum". Journal of earthy Products
fungus
71 : 1022–1026. doi
fungus
:10.1021/np8001139
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18547117
fungus
^
fungus
Yuen JW, Gohel MD. . "Anticancer perform of Ganoderma lucidum: a analyze of technological evidence". Nutrition and Cancer 53 : 11–17. doi
fungus
:10.1207/s15327914nc5301_2
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16351502
fungus
^
fungus
Sullivan R, Smith JE, Rowan NJ. . "Medicinal adopted and cancer therapy: translating a customary practise into occidental medicine". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 : 159–170. doi
fungus
:10.1353/pbm.2006.0034
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16702701
fungus
^
fungus
Halpern GM, Miller A. . antimicrobial Mushrooms: past debugging for contemporary Ailments. New York, New York: M. Evans and Co. p. 116. ISBN
fungus
 0-87131-981-0
fungus
^
fungus
Fisher M, Yang LX. . "Anticancer perform and mechanisms of polysaccharide-K : implications of cancer immunotherapy". antineoplastic experiment 22 : 1737–1754. PMID
fungus
 12168863
fungus
^
fungus
Kulp K. . Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology. CRC Press. ISBN
fungus
 0-8247-8294-1
fungus
^
fungus
Piskur J, Rozpedowska E, Polakova S, Merico A, Compagno C. . "How did Saccharomyces derived to arose a solid brewer?". trend in Genetics 22 : 183–186. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.tig.2006.02.002
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16499989
fungus
^
fungus
Abe K, Gomi K, Hasegawa F, Machida M. . "Impact of Aspergillus oryzae genomics on industrial production of metabolites". Mycopathologia 162 : 143–153. doi
fungus
:10.1007/s11046-006-0049-2
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16944282
fungus
^
fungus
Hachmeister KA, Fung DY. . "Tempeh: a mold-modified autochthonal fermented food perform from soybeans and/or cereal grains". captious investigates in Microbiology 19 : 137–188. doi
fungus
:10.3109/10408419309113527
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 8267862
fungus
^
fungus
Jørgensen TR. . "Identification and toxigenic latent of the industrially central fungi, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae". Journal of Food Protection 70 : 2916–2934. PMID
fungus
 18095455
fungus
^
fungus
O'Donnell K, Cigelnik E, Casper HH. . "Molecular phylogenetic, morphological, and mycotoxin data help reidentification of the Quorn mycoprotein fungus as Fusarium venenatum". fungous Genetics and Biology 23 : 57–67. doi
fungus
:10.1006/fgbi.1997.1018
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 9501477
fungus
^
fungus
Stamets P. . discipline Gourmet and antimicrobial adopted = . Berkeley, California: Ten moving Press. pp. 233–248. ISBN
fungus
 1-58008-175-4
fungus
^
fungus
Hall, pp. 13–26. ^
fungus
Kinsella JE, Hwang DH. . "Enzymes of Penicillium roqueforti refer in the biosynthesis of cheeses flavor". CRC captious investigates in Food Science and Nutrition 8 : 191–228. doi
fungus
:10.1080/10408397609527222
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 21770
fungus
^
fungus
Erdogan A, Gurses M, Sert S. . "Isolation of moulds capable of producing mycotoxins from blue mouldy Tulum cheese perform in Turkey". world Journal of Food Microbiology 85 : 83–85. doi
fungus
:10.1016/S0168-160500485-3
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 12810273
fungus
^
fungus
Orr DB, Orr RT. . adopted of occidental northbound America. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 17. ISBN
fungus
 0-520-03656-5
fungus
^
fungus
Vetter J. . "Toxins of Amanita phalloides". Toxicon 36 : 13–24. doi
fungus
:10.1016/S0041-010100074-3
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 9604278
fungus
^
fungus
Leathem AM, Dorran TJ. . "Poisoning due to raw Gyromitra esculenta westbound of the Rockies". Canadian Journal of Emergency treat 9 : 127–130. PMID
fungus
 17391587
fungus
^
fungus
Karlson-Stiber C, Persson H. . "Cytotoxic fungi—an overview". Toxicon 42 : 339–349. doi
fungus
:10.1016/S0041-010100238-1
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 14505933
fungus
^
fungus
Michelot D, Melendez-Howell LM. . "Amanita muscaria: chemistry, biology, toxicology, and ethnomycology". Mycological experiment 107 : 131–146. doi
fungus
:10.1017/S0953756203007305
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 12747324
fungus
^
fungus
Hall, p. 7. ^
fungus
Ammirati JF, McKenny M, Stuntz DE. . The New savoury frenzied Mushroom. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press. pp. xii–xiii. ISBN
fungus
 0-295-96480-4
fungus
^
fungus
López-Gómez J, Molina-Meyer M. . "The agonistic exclusion principle versus biodiversity doner agonistic segregation and favor adaptation to spacial heterogeneities". abstractive Population Biology 69 : 94–109. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.tpb.2005.08.004
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16223517
fungus
^
fungus
Becker H. . "Setting the phase To check Biocontrol Fungi"
fungus
. connects express Department of Agriculture, Agricultural experiment Service. Retrieved 23 February 2009.  ^
fungus
Keiller TS. "Whey-based fungous microfactory technology for accelerate biologic pest management use fungi"
fungus
. UVM Innovations. Retrieved 29 October 2011.  ^
fungus
Deshpande MV. . "Mycopesticide production by fermentation: latent and challenges". Critical investigates in Microbiology
fungus
25 : 229–243. doi
fungus
:10.1080/10408419991299220
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 10524330
fungus
^
fungus
Thomas MB, misunderstood AF. . "Can fungous biopesticides tamper malaria?". Nature investigates Microbiology 5 : 377–383. doi
fungus
:10.1038/nrmicro1638
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17426726
fungus
^
fungus
gates LP, Wilkinson HH, Schardl CL. . "Bioprotective alkaloids of grass-fungal endophyte symbioses"
fungus
. put Physiology 114 : 1–7. PMC
fungus
 158272
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 12223685
fungus
^
fungus
Bouton JH, Fasten GCM, shape NS, Hoveland CS, McCannc MA, Watson RH, Parish JA, Hawkins LL, Thompson FN. . "Use of nonergot alkaloid-producing endophytes for repaired tallest fescue toxicosis in sheep"
fungus
. Agronomy Journal
fungus
94: 567–574.  analyze by Parish, J. A.; McCann, M. A.; Watson, R. H.; Hoveland, C. S.; Hawkins, L. L.; Hill, N. S.; Bouton, J. H. . "Fungus can be obtaining doner genes. It is label fungusitis.". Journal of physical science 81 : 1316–1322. PMID
fungus
 12772860
fungus
.  edit
fungus
^
fungus
Christian V, Shrivastava R, Shukla D, Modi HA, Vyas BR. . "Degradation of xenobiotic integrates by lignin-degrading white-rot fungi: enzymology and mechanisms involved". Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
fungus
43 : 301–312. PMID
fungus
 15875713
fungus
^
fungus
"Fungi to labor 'toxic war zones'"
fungus
. BBC News. 5 May 2008.  ^
fungus
Fomina M, Charnock JM, Hillier S, Alvarez R, Gadd GM. . "Fungal transformations of uranium oxides". Environmental Microbiology 9 : 1696–1710. doi
fungus
:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01288.x
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 17564604
fungus
^
fungus
Fomina M, Charnock JM, Hillier S, Alvarez R, Stimulate F, Gadd GM. . "Role of fungi in the biogeochemical fate of insufficient uranium". truest Biology 18 : R375–R377. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.cub.2008.03.011
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18460315
fungus
^
fungus
Beadle GW, Tatum EL. . "Genetic tamper of biochemical reactions in Neurospora"
fungus
. Proceedings of the federal Academy of Sciences of the USA 27 : 499–506. Bibcode
fungus
:1941PNAS...27..499B
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1073/pnas.27.11.499
fungus
. PMC
fungus
 1078370
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16588492
fungus
^
fungus
Datta A, Ganesan K, Natarajan K. . "Current trend in Candida albicans research". Advances in microbic Physiology
fungus
. moving in microbic Physiology 30: 53–88. doi
fungus
:10.1016/S0065-291160110-1
fungus
. ISBN
fungus
 978-0-12-027730-8
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 2700541
fungus
^
fungus
Dean RA. . "The genome evaluate of the winnowing fire fungus Magnaporthe grisea". Nature
fungus
434 : 980–986. Bibcode
fungus
:2005Natur.434..980D
fungus
. doi
fungus
:10.1038/nature03449
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 15846337
fungus
^
fungus
Daly R, Hearn MT. . "Expression of heterologic proteins in Pichia pastoris: a multipurpose experimental direct in protein design and production". Journal of Molecular Recognition
fungus
18 : 119–138. doi
fungus
:10.1002/jmr.687
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 15565717
fungus
^
fungus
Schlegel HG. . widespread Microbiology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 360. ISBN
fungus
 0-521-43980-9
fungus
^
fungus
Joseph B, Ramteke PW, Thomas G. . "Cold about microbic lipases: any hot publicize and revolutionary developments". Biotechnology moving 26 : 457–470. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2008.05.003
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18571355
fungus
^
fungus
Kumar R, Singh S, Singh OV. . "Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass: biochemical and molecular perspectives". Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 35 : 377–391. doi
fungus
:10.1007/s10295-008-0327-8
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 18338189
fungus
^
fungus
"Trichoderma spp., include T. harzianum, T. viride, T. koningii, T. hamatum and variant spp. Deuteromycetes, Moniliales "
fungus
. biologic Control: A manipulate to earthy Enemies in northbound America. Retrieved 10 July 2007.  ^
fungus
Olempska-Beer ZS, Merker RI, Repeat MD, DiNovi MJ. . "Food-processing enzymes from recombinant microorganisms—a review". inhibitory Toxicology and Pharmacology 45 : 144–158. doi
fungus
:10.1016/j.yrtph.2006.05.001
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 16769167
fungus
^
fungus
Polizeli ML, Rizzatti AC, Monti R, Terenzi HF, Jorge JA, Amorim DS. . "Xylanases from fungi: properties and industrial applications". use Microbiology and Biotechnology 67 : 577–591. doi
fungus
:10.1007/s00253-005-1904-7
fungus
. PMID
fungus
 15944805
fungus
.  repeat literature Ainsworth GC. . Introduction to the History of Mycology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN
fungus
 0-521-11295-8
fungus
.  Alexopoulos CJ, Mims CW, Blackwell M. . founded Mycology. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN
fungus
 0-471-52229-5
fungus
.  Chandler PJ. . A Dipterist's Handbook . The nonprofessional Entomologists' Society. pp. 1–525.  Deacon J. . fungous Biology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN
fungus
 1-4051-3066-0
fungus
.  Hall IR. . killable and cyanogenetic adopted of the World. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. ISBN
fungus
 0-88192-586-1
fungus
.  Hanson JR. . The Chemistry of Fungi. Royal Society Of Chemistry. ISBN
fungus
 0-85404-136-2
fungus
.  Jennings DH, Lysek G. . fungous Biology: understand the fungous Lifestyle. Guildford, UK: Bios technological Publishers Ltd. ISBN
fungus
 978-1-85996-150-6
fungus
.  Kirk PM, single PF, Perfect DW, Stalpers JA. . Dictionary of the Fungi. 10th ed. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. ISBN
fungus
 0-85199-826-7
fungus
.  Taylor EL, Taylor TN. . The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN
fungus
 0-13-651589-4
fungus
.  outermost think sound up fungus
fungus
in Wiktionary, the enfranchised dictionary. determine more than around fungus at sister projects
fungus
fungus
Definitions
fungus
from Wiktionary
fungus
Media
fungus
from Commons
fungus
News stories
fungus
from
fungus
Quotations
fungus
from
fungus
Source texts
fungus
from
fungus
Textbooks
fungus
from
fungus
Learning resources
fungus
from
fungus
Taxonomy of Fungi
fungus
from Library resources
fungus
around fungus Online books
fungus
Resources in your library
fungus
Resources in variant libraries
fungus
Tree of Life web project: Fungi
fungus
fungus
fungus
at the Encyclopedia of Life
fungus
Mushroom Observer
fungus
, a cooperative fungus rescued and identification covenant v
fungus
t
fungus
e
fungus
Opisthokont
fungus
: Fungi classification, fungal orders
fungus
Domain
fungus
Archaea
fungus
Bacteria
fungus
Eukaryota
fungus
" title="Kingdom ">Kingdom
fungus
Plant
fungus
Hacrobia
fungus
Heterokont
fungus
Alveolata
fungus
Rhizaria
fungus
Excavata
fungus
Amoebozoa
fungus
Animal
fungus
Fungi
fungus
) Dikarya
fungus
Ascomycota
fungus
saccharomyceta Pezizomycotina
fungus
leotiomyceta
fungus
Geoglossomycetes
fungus
dothideomyceta
fungus
Eurotiomycetes
fungus
Lecanoromycetes
fungus
sordariomyceta
fungus
Lichinomycetes
fungus
variant Orbiliomycetes
fungus
Pezizomycetes
fungus
Saccharomycotina
fungus
Saccharomycetes
fungus
Taphrinomycotina
fungus
Archaeorhizomycetes
fungus
Neolectomycetes
fungus
Pneumocystidomycetes
fungus
Schizosaccharomycetes
fungus
Taphrinomycetes
fungus
Basidiomycota
fungus
Pucciniomycotina
fungus
Ustilaginomycotina
fungus
Agaricomycotina
fungus
Urediniomycetes
fungus
Glomeromycota
fungus
Glomerales
fungus
Diversisporales
fungus
Paraglomerales
fungus
Archaeosporales
fungus
Zygomycota
fungus
Mucoromycotina
fungus
Endogonales
fungus
Mucorales
fungus
Chaetocladiaceae
fungus
Choanephoraceae
fungus
Cunninghamellaceae
fungus
Gilbertellaceae
fungus
Mortierellaceae
fungus
Mucoraceae
fungus
Mycotyphaceae
fungus
Phycomycetaceae
fungus
Pilobolaceae
fungus
Radiomycetaceae
fungus
Saksenaeaceae
fungus
Syncephalastraceae
fungus
Thamnidiaceae
fungus
Umbelopsidaceae
fungus
Mortierellales
fungus
Entomophthoromycotina
fungus
Entomophthorales
fungus
Basidiobolaceae
fungus
Ancylistaceae
fungus
Kickxellomycotina
fungus
Asellariales
fungus
Kickxellales
fungus
Dimargaritales
fungus
Harpellales
fungus
Zoopagomycotina
fungus
Zoopagales
fungus
variant Blastocladiomycota
fungus
Chytridiomycota
fungus
/Neocallimastigomycota
fungus
Microsporidia
fungus

fung
fungus
, clas
fungus

medicate
v
fungus
t
fungus
e
fungus
Microbiology
fungus
: fungus organize Reproduction/spore
fungus
teleomorph/sexual
fungus
: Zygospore
fungus
Ascospore
fungus
/Ascus
fungus
Basidiospore
fungus
/Basidium
fungus
/Teliospore
fungus
anamorph/asexual
fungus
: Sporangium
fungus
Conidium
fungus
Chlamydospore
fungus
Oidium
fungus
Pycniospore
fungus
variant Hypha
fungus
Haustorium
fungus
Mycelium
fungus
Cell wall
fungus
Growth imitate Dimorphic fungi
fungus
Mold
fungus
Yeast
fungus
Mushroom
fungus

fung
fungus
, clas
fungus

medicate
v
fungus
t
fungus
e
fungus
Eukaryota
fungus
Domain
fungus
Archaea
fungus
Bacteria
fungus
Eukaryota
fungus
" title="Kingdom ">Kingdom
fungus
Plant
fungus
Hacrobia
fungus
Heterokont
fungus
Alveolata
fungus
Rhizaria
fungus
Excavata
fungus
Amoebozoa
fungus
Animal
fungus
Fungi
fungus
) Bikonta
fungus
AH/SAR
fungus
AH
fungus
Archaeplastida
fungus
, or Plantae sensu lato
fungus
Viridiplantae
fungus
/Plantae sensu stricto
fungus
Rhodophyta
fungus
Glaucophyta
fungus
Hacrobia
fungus
, or non-SAR chromalveolata
fungus
Haptophyta
fungus
Cryptophyta
fungus
Centroheliozoa
fungus
SAR
fungus
Halvaria
fungus
Stramenopiles
fungus
, or heterokonts Ochrophyta
fungus
Bigyra
fungus
Pseudofungi
fungus
Alveolata
fungus
Ciliates
fungus
Myzozoa
fungus
Apicomplexa
fungus
Dinoflagellata
fungus
Rhizaria
fungus
Cercozoa
fungus
Retaria
fungus
Foraminifera
fungus
Radiolaria
fungus
Excavata
fungus
Discoba
fungus
Euglenozoa
fungus
Jakobea
fungus
Percolozoa
fungus
Loukozoa
fungus
Metamonad
fungus
Malawimonas
fungus
Apusozoa
fungus
Apusomonadida
fungus
Apusomonas
fungus
Amastigomonas
fungus
Ancyromonadida
fungus
Ancyromonas
fungus
Hemimastigida
fungus
Hemimastix
fungus
Spironema
fungus
Stereonema
fungus
Unikonta
fungus
Amoebozoa
fungus
Lobosea
fungus
Conosa
fungus
Phalansterium
fungus
Breviata
fungus
Opisthokonta
fungus
Holozoa
fungus
Mesomycetozoea
fungus
Dermocystida
fungus
Ichthyophonida
fungus
Filozoa
fungus
Filasterea
fungus
Capsaspora
fungus
Ministeria
fungus
Choanoflagellate
fungus
Codonosigidae
fungus
Salpingoecidae
fungus
Acanthoecidae
fungus
Metazoa, or "Animalia"
fungus
Eumetazoa
fungus
Bilateria
fungus
Cnidaria
fungus
Ctenophora
fungus
Mesozoa
fungus
Dicyemida
fungus
Orthonectida
fungus
Parazoa
fungus
Placozoa
fungus
Porifera
fungus
Holomycota
fungus
Fungi Dikarya
fungus
Ascomycota
fungus
Basidiomycota
fungus
Glomeromycota
fungus
Zygomycota
fungus
Blastocladiomycota
fungus
Chytridiomycota
fungus
Neocallimastigomycota
fungus
Microsporidia
fungus
Nucleariidae
fungus
Nuclearia
fungus
Micronuclearia
fungus
Rabdiophrys
fungus
Pinaciophora
fungus
Pompholyxophrys
fungus
Fonticula
fungus
Incertae sedis
fungus
Diphyllatea
fungus
Collodictyon triciliatum
fungus
Diphylleia rotans
fungus
Sulcomonas lacustris
fungus
Kamera lens
fungus
Picozoa
fungus
Sources: Adl et al.
fungus
, Adl et al.
fungus
, Cavalier-Smith
fungus
. v
fungus
t
fungus
e
fungus
Elements of nature
fungus
Universe
fungus
Space
fungus
Time
fungus
Energy
fungus
Matter
fungus
Change
fungus
Earth
fungus
Earth science
fungus
History
fungus
  Structure
fungus
Geology
fungus
Plate tectonics
fungus
Oceans
fungus
Gaia hypothesis
fungus
Future
fungus
Weather
fungus
Meteorology
fungus
Atmosphere
fungus
Climate
fungus
Clouds
fungus
Sunlight
fungus
Tides
fungus
Wind
fungus
Environment
fungus
Ecology
fungus
Ecosystem
fungus
Wilderness
fungus
Wildfires
fungus
Life
fungus
Origin
fungus
Evolutionary history
fungus
Hierarchy
fungus
Biology
fungus
  Organism
fungus
Eukaryota
fungus
flora
fungus
plants
fungus
fauna
fungus
animals
fungus
fungi protista
fungus
Prokaryotes
fungus
archaea
fungus
bacteria
fungus
Viruses
fungus
Category
fungus
Science portal
fungus
fungus
 

Recent Entries

You must be logged in to post a comment.

CONTACTS
archive

46c82609c69c99fad8867d735eb49e63dfb48e78